a city of Egypt, mentioned only by Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 30:15,16) The name is Hebrew, or at least Semitic, perhaps signifying clay . It is identified in the Vulgate with Pelusium, "the clayey or muddy" town. Its antiquity may perhaps be inferred from the mention of "the wilderness of Sin" in the journeys of the Israelites. (Exodus 16:1; Numbers 33:11) Ezekiel speaks of Sin as "Sin the strongholds of Egypt." (Ezekiel 30:15) This place was held by Egypt from that time until the period of the Romans. Herodotus relates that Sennacherib advanced against Pelusium, and that near Pelusium Cambyses defeated Psammenitus. In like manner the decisive battle in which Ochus defeated the last native king, Nectanebes, was fought near this city.Sin
1. Any thought, word, desire, action, or omission of action, contrary to the law of God, or defective when compared with it.
The origin of sin is a subject which baffles all investigation; and our inquiries are much better directed when we seek through Christ a release from its penalty and power, for ourselves and the world. Its entrance into the world, and infection of the whole human race, its nature, forms, and effects, and its fatal possession of every unregenerate soul, are fully described in the Bible, Genesis 6:5 Psalm 51:5 Matthew 15:19 Romans 5:12 James 1:14,15.
As contrary to the nature, worship, love, and service to God, sin is called ungodliness; as a violation of the law of God and of the claims of man, it is a transgression or trespass; as a deviation from eternal rectitude, it is called iniquity or unrighteousness; as the evil and bitter root of all actual transgression, the depravity transmitted from our first parents to all their seed, it is called "original sin," or in the Bible," the flesh," "the law of sin and death," etc., Romans 8:1,2 1 John 3:4 5:17. The just penalty or "wages of sin is death;" this was threatened against the first sin, Genesis 2:17 and all subsequent sins: "the soul that sinneth it shall die." A single sin, unrepented of the unforgiven, destroys the soul, as a single break renders a whole ocean cable worthless. Its guilt and evil are to be measured by the holiness, justice, and goodness of the law it violates, the eternity of the misery it causes, and the greatness of the Sacrifice necessary to expiate it.
"Sin" is also sometimes put for the sacrifice of expiation, the sin offering, described in Le 4:3,25,29 also, Romans 8:3 and in 2 1 Corinthians 5:21, Paul says that God was pleased that Jesus, who knew no sin, should be our victim of expiation: "For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him."
For the sin against the Holy Ghost, see BLASPHEMY.
2. A desert of Arabia Petraea, near Egypt, and on the western arm of the Red Sea, Exodus 16:1 17:1 Nu 33:12. To be distinguished from the desert of Zin. See ZIN.
3. An ancient fortified city, called "the strength of Egypt," Ezekiel 30:15,16. Its name means mire, and in this it agrees with Pelusium and Tineh, the Greek and modern names of the same place. It defended the northeast frontier of Egypt, and lay near the Mediterranean, of the eastern arm of the Nile. Its site, near the village of Tineh, is surrounded with morasses; and is now accessible by boat only during a high inundation, or by land in the driest part or summer. A few mounds and columns alone remain. HOLY GHOST (SPIRIT), SIN AGAINST THE
See BLASPHEMY; HOLY SPIRIT, III, 1, (4).
MAN OF SIN
(ho anthropos tes hamartias; many ancient authorities read, "man of lawlessness," anomias):
1. The Pauline Description:
The name occurs in Paul's remarkable announcement in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-10 of the manifestation of a colossal anti-Christian power prior to the advent, which some of the Thessalonians had been misled into thinking of as immediately impending (2:2). That "day of the Lord," the apostle declares, will not come till, as he had previously taught them (2:5), there has first been a great apostasy and the revelation of "the man of sin" (or "of lawlessness"; compare 2:8), named also "the son of perdition" (2:3). This "lawless one" (2:8) would exalt himself above all that is called God, or is an object of worship; he would sit in the temple of God, setting himself forth as God (2:4). For the time another power restrained his manifestation; when that was removed, he would be revealed (2:6, 7). Then "the mystery of lawlessness," which was already working, would attain its full development (2:7, 8). The coming of this "man of sin," in the power of Satan, would be with lying wonders and all deceit of unrighteousness, whereby many would be deceived to their destruction (2:9, 10). But only for a season (2:6). Jesus would slay (or consume) him with the breath of His mouth (compare Isaiah 11:4), and bring him to nought by the manifestation of His coming (2 Thessalonians 2:8).
2. The Varying Interpretations:
Innumerable are theories and speculations to which this Pauline passage has given rise a very full account of these may be seen in the essay on "The Man of Sin" appended to Dr. J. Eadie's posthumous Commentary on Thessalonians, and in Lunemann's Commentary, 222;, English translation).
(1) There is the view, favored by "moderns," that the passage contains no genuine prediction (Paul "could not know" the future), but represents a speculation of the apostle's own, based on Daniel 8:23;; 11:36;, and on current ideas of Antichrist (see ANTICHRIST; BELIAL; compare Bousset, Der Antichrist, 93;, etc.). This view will not satisfy those who believe in the reality of Paul's apostleship and inspiration.
(2) Some connect the description with Caligula, Nero, or other of the Roman emperors. Caligula, indeed, ordered supplication to be made to himself as the supreme god and wished to set up his statue in the temple of Jerusalem (Suet. Calig. xxii0.33; Josephus, Ant, XVIII, viii). But this was long before Paul's visit to Thessalonica, and the acts of such a madman could not furnish the basis of a prediction so elaborate and important as the present (compare Lunemann and Bousset).
(3) The favorite Protestant interpretation refers the prediction to the papacy, in whom, it is contended, many of the blasphemous features of Paul's representation are unmistakably realized. The "temple of God" is here understood to be the church; the restraining power the Roman empire; "the man of sin" not an individual, but the personification of an institution or system. It is cult, however, to resist the impression that the apostle regards "the mystery of lawlessness" as culminating in an individual-a personal Antichrist-and in any case the representation outstrips everything that can be conceived of as even nominally Christian.
(4) There remains the view held by most of the Fathers, and in recent times widely adopted, that "the man of sin" of this passage is an individual in whom, previous to the advent, sin will embody itself in its most lawless and God-denying form. The attempts to identify this individual with historical characters may be set aside; but the idea is not thereby invalidated. The difficulty is that the apostle evidently conceives of the manifestation of the "man of sin" as taking place, certainly not immediately, but at no very remote period-not 2,000 years later-and as connected directly with the final advent of Christ, and the judgment on the wicked (compare 2 Thessalonians 1:7-9), without apparently any reference to a "millennial" period, either before or after.
It seems safest, in view of the difficulties of the passage, to confine one's self to the general idea it embodies, leaving details to be interpreted by the actual fulfillment.
3. The Essential Idea:
There is much support in Scripture-not least in Christ's own teaching (compare Matthew 13:30, 37-43; Matthew 24:11-14 Luke 18:8)-for the belief that before the final triumph of Christ's kingdom there will be a period of great tribulation, of decay of faith, of apostasy, of culmination of both good and evil ("Let both grow together until the harvest," Matthew 13:30), with the seeming triumph for the time of the evil over the good. There will be a crisis-time-sharp, severe, and terminated by a decisive interposition of the Son of Man ("the manifestation of his coming," the Revised Version margin "Gr presence"), in what precise form may be left undetermined. Civil law and government-the existing bulwark against anarchy (in Paul's time represented by the Roman power)-will be swept away by the rising tide of evil, and lawlessness will prevail. It may be that impiety will concentrate itself, as the passage says, in some individual head; or this may belong to the form of the apostle's apprehension in a case where "times and seasons" were not yet fully revealed: an apprehension to be enlarged by subsequent revelations (see REVELATION OF JOHN), or left to be corrected by the actual course of God's providence. The kernel of the prediction is not, any more than in the Old Testament prophecies, dependent on its literal realization in every detail. Neither does the final manifestation of evil exclude partial and anticipatory realizations, embodying many of the features of the prophecy.
See THESSALONIANS, THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PAUL TO THE, III.
shen, sen "sh", "s": The 21st letter of the Hebrew alphabet; transliterated in this Encyclopedia as "sh" and "s". It came also to be used for the number 300. For name, etc., see ALPHABET.
(chaTTa'th, "a missing," `awon, "perversity" pesha`, "transgression," ra`, "evil," etc.; hamartano, "miss the mark," parabasis, "transgression" with a suggestion of violence, adikia, "injustice," "unrighteousness"):
1. Sin as Disobedience
2. Affects the Inner Life
3. Involves All Men
4. The Story of the Fall
5. The Freedom of Man
6. A Transgression against Light
7. Inwardness of the Moral Law
8. Sin a Positive Force
12. Life in Christ
1. Sin as Disobedience:
A fairly exact definition of sin based on Biblical data would be that sin is the transgression of the law of God (1 John 3:4). Ordinarily, sin is defined simply as "the transgression of the law," but the idea of God is so completely the essential conception of the entire Biblical revelation that we can best define sin as disobedience to the law of God. It will be seen that primarily sin is an act, but from the very beginning it has been known that acts have effects, not only in the outward world of things and persons, but also upon him who commits the act.
2. Affects the Inner Life:
Hence, we find throughout the Scriptures a growing emphasis on the idea of the sinful act as not only a fact in itself, but also as a revelation of an evil disposition on the part of him who commits the act (Genesis 6:5).
3. Involves All Men:
Then also there is the further idea that deeds which so profoundly affect the inner life of an individual in some way have an effect in transmitting evil tendencies to the descendants of a sinful individual (Psalm 51:5, 6 Ephesians 2:3). See HEREDITY; TRADITION. Hence, we reach shortly the conception, not only that sin is profoundly inner in its consequences, but that its effects reach outward also to an extent which practically involves the race. Around these various items of doctrine differing systems of theology have sprung up.
4. The Story of the Fall:
Students of all schools are agreed that we have in the Old Testament story of the fall of Adam an eternally true account of the way sin comes into the world (Genesis 3:1-6). The question is not so much as to the literal historic matter-of-factness of the narrative, as to its essentially psychological truthfulness. The essential thought of the narrative is that both Adam and Eve disobeyed an express command of God. The seductiveness of temptation is nowhere more forcefully stated than in this narrative. The fruit of the tree is pleasant to look upon; it is good to eat; it is to be desired to make one wise; moreover, the tempter moves upon the woman by the method of the half truth (see ADAM IN THE OLD TESTAMENT). God had said that disobedience to the command would bring death; the tempter urged that disobedience would not bring death, implying that the command of God had meant that death would immediately follow the eating of the forbidden fruit. In the story the various avenues of approach of sin to the human heart are graphically suggested, but after the seductiveness of evil has thus been set forth, the fact remains that both transgressors knew they were transgressing (Genesis 3:2 f). Of course, the story is told in simple, naive fashion, but its perennial spiritual truth is at once apparent. There has been much progress in religious thinking concerning sin during the Christian ages, but the progress has not been away from this central conception of willful disobedience to the law of God.
5. The Freedom of Man:
In this early Biblical account there is implicit the thought of the freedom of man. The idea of transgression has sometimes been interpreted in such wise as to do away with this freedom. An unbiased reading of the Scriptures would, with the possible exception of some passages which designedly lay stress on the power of God (Romans 8:29, 30), produce on the mind the impression that freedom is essential to sin. Certainly there is nothing in the account of the Old Testament or New Testament narratives to warrant the conception that men are born into sin by forces over which they have no control. The argument of the tempter with the woman is an argument aimed at her will. By easy steps, indeed, she moves toward the transgression, but the transgression is a transgression and nothing else. Of course, the evil deed is at once followed by attempts on the part of the transgressors to explain themselves, but the futility of the explanations is part of the point of the narrative. In all discussion of the problem of freedom as relating to sin, we must remember that the Biblical revelation is from first to last busy with the thought of the righteousness and justice and love of God (Genesis 6:9 tells us that because of justice or righteousness, Noah walked with God). Unless we accept the doctrine that God is Himself not free, a doctrine which is nowhere implied in the Scripture, we must insist that the condemnation of men as sinful, when they have not had freedom to be otherwise than sinful, is out of harmony with the Biblical revelation of the character of God. Of course this does not mean that a man is free in all things. Freedom is limited in various ways, but we must retain enough of freedom in our thought of the constitution of men to make possible our holding fast to the Biblical idea of sin as transgression. Some who take the Biblical narrative as literal historical fact maintain that all men sinned in Adam (see IMPUTATION, III, 1). Adam may have been free to sin or not to sin, but, "in his fall we sinned all." We shall mention the hereditary influences of sin in a later paragraph; here it is sufficient to say that even if the first man had not sinned, there is nothing in our thought of the nature of man to make it impossible to believe that the sinful course of human history could have been initiated by some descendant of the first man far down the line.
6. A Transgression against Light:
The progress of the Biblical teaching concerning sin also would seem to imply that the transgression of the law must be a transgression committed against the light (Acts 17:30 1 Timothy 1:13). To be sinful in any full sense of the word, a man must know that the course which he is adopting is an evil course. This does not necessarily mean a full realization of the evil of the course. It is a fact, both of Biblical revelation and of revelation of all times, that men who commit sin do not realize the full evil of their deeds until after the sin has been committed (2 Samuel 12:1-13). This is partly because the consequences of sin do not declare themselves until after the deed has been committed; partly also because of the remorse of the conscience; and partly from the humiliation at being discovered; but in some sense there must be a realization of the evil of a course to make the adoption of the course sinful. E.g. in estimating the moral worth of Biblical characters, especially those of earlier times, we must keep in mind the standards of the times in which they lived. These standards were partly set by the customs of the social group, but the customs were, in many cases, made sacred by the claim of divine sanction. Hence, we find Biblical characters giving themselves readily to polygamy and warfare. The Scriptures themselves, however, throw light upon this problem. They refer to early times as times of ignorance, an ignorance which God Himself was willing to overlook (Acts 17:30). Even so ripe a moral consciousness as that of Paul felt that there was ground for forgiveness toward a course which he himself later considered evil, because in that earlier course he had acted ignorantly (Acts 26:9 1 Timothy 1:13).
7. Inwardness of the Moral Law:
The Biblical narratives, too, show us the passage over from sin conceived of as the violation of external commands to sin conceived of as an unwillingness to keep the commandments in the depths of the inner life. The course of Biblical history is one long protest against conceiving of sin in an external fashion.
In the sources of light which are to help men discern good from evil, increasing stress is laid upon inner moral insight (compare Isaiah 58:5; Hosea 6:1-7). The power of the prophets was in their direct moral insight and the fervor with which they made these insights real to the mass of the people. Of course it was necessary that the spirit of the prophets be given body and form in carefully articulated law. The progress of the Hebrews from the insight of the seer to the statute of the lawmaker was not different from such progress in any other nations. It is easy to see, however, how the hardening of moral precepts into formal codes, absolutely necessary as that task was, led to an externalizing of the thought of sin. The man who did not keep the formal law was a sinner. On such basis there grew up the artificial systems which came to their culmination in the New Testament times in Pharisaism. On the other hand, a fresh insight by a new prophet might be in violation of the Law, considered in its literal aspects. It might be necessary for a prophet to attack outright some additions to the Law. We regard as a high-water mark of Old Testament moral utterances the word of Micah that the Lord requires men to do justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with Him (6:8). At the time this word was uttered, the people were giving themselves up to multitudes of sacrifices. Many of these sacrifices called for the heaviest sufferings on the part of the worshippers. It would seem that an obligation to sacrifice the firstborn was beginning to be taught in order that the Hebrews might not be behind the neighboring heathen nations in observances of religious codes. The simple direct word of Micah must have seemed heresy to many of its first hearers. The outcome, however, of this conflict between the inner and the outer in the thought of transgression was finally to deepen the springs of the inner life. The extremes of externalism led to a break with moral realities which tended to become apparent to the most ordinary observer. The invective of Jesus against New Testament Pharisaism took its force largely from the fact that Jesus gave clear utterance to what everyone knew. Those who thought of religion as external gave themselves to formal keeping of the commandments and allowed the inner life to run riot as it would (Matthew 23:23, et al.).
With the more serious-minded the keeping of the Law became more and more a matter of the inner spirit. There were some who, like Paul, found it impossible to keep the Law and find peace of conscience (Romans 7). It was this very impossibility which forced some, like Paul, to understand that after all, sin or righteousness must be judged by the inner disposition. It was this which led to the search for a conception of a God who looks chiefly at the heart and judges men by the inner motive.
In the teaching of Jesus the emphasis upon the inner spirit as the essential factor in the moral life came to its climax. Jesus honored the Law, but He pushed the keeping of the Law back from the mere performance of externals to the inner stirrings of motives. It is not merely the actual commission of adultery, for example, that is sin: it is the lustful desire which leads to the evil glance; it is not merely the actual killing of the man that is murder; it is the spirit of hatred which makes the thought of murder welcome (Matthew 5:21, 27). Paul caught the spirit of Jesus and carried the thought of Jesus out into more elaborate and formal statements. There is a law of the inner life with which man should bind himself, and this law is the law of Christ's life itself (Romans 8:1-4). While both Jesus and Paul recognized the place of the formal codes in the moral life of individuals and societies, they wrought a great service for righteousness in setting on high the obligations upon the inner spirit. The follower of Christ is to guard the inmost thoughts of his heart. The commandments are not always precepts which can be given articulated statement; they are rather instincts and intuitions and glimpses which must be followed, even when we cannot give them full statement.
8. Sin a Positive Force:
From this standpoint we are able to discern something of the force of the Biblical teaching as to whether sin is to be looked upon as negative or positive. Very often sin is defined as the mere absence of goodness. The man who sins is one who does not keep the Law. This, however, is hardly the full Biblical conception. Of course, the man who does not keep the Law is regarded as a sinner, but the idea transgression is very often that of a positive refusal to keep the commandment and a breaking of the commandment. Two courses are set before men, one good, the other evil. The evil course is, in a sense, something positive in itself. The evil man does not stand still; he moves as truly as the good man moves; he becomes a positive force for evil. In all our discussions we must keep clearly in mind the truth that evil is not something existing in and by itself. The Scriptures deal with evil men, and the evil men are as positive as their natures permit them to be. In this sense of the word sin does run a course of positive destruction. In the thought, e.g., of the writer who describes the conditions which, in his belief, made necessary the Flood, we have a positive state of evil contaminating almost the whole world (Genesis 6:11). It would be absurd to characterize the world in the midst of which Noah lived as merely a negative world. The world was positively set toward evil. And so, in later writings, Paul's thought of Roman society is of a world of sinful men moving with increasing velocity toward the destruction of themselves and of all around them through doing evil. It is impossible to believe that Romans 1 conceives of sin merely in negative terms. We repeat, we do not do full justice to the Biblical conception when we speak of sin merely in negative terms. If we may be permitted to use a present-day illustration, we may say that in the Biblical thought sinful men are like the destructive forces in the world of Nature which must be removed before there can be peace and health for human life. For example, science today has much to say concerning germs of diseases which prove destructive to human life. A large part of modern scientific effort has been to rid the world of these germs, or at least to cleanse human surroundings from their contaminating touch. The man who sterilizes the human environment so that these forces cannot touch men does in one sense a merely negative work; in another sense, however, his work makes possible the positive development of the forces which make for health.
It is from this thought of the positiveness of sin that we are to approach the problem of the hereditary transmission of evil. The Biblical teaching has often been misinterpreted at this point. Apart from certain passages, especially those of Paul, which set forth the practically universal contamination of sin (e.g. Romans 5:18, etc.), there is nothing in the Scriptures to suggest the idea that men are born into the world under a weight of guilt. We hold fast to the idea of God as a God of justice and love. There is no way of reconciling these attributes with the condemnation of human souls before these souls have themselves transgressed. Of course much theological teaching moves on the assumption that the tendencies to evil are so great that the souls will necessarily trangress, but we must keep clearly in mind the difference between a tendency to evil and the actual commission of evil. Modern scientific research reinforces the conception that the children of sinful parents, whose sins have been such as to impress their lives throughout, will very soon manifest symptoms of evil tendency. Even in this case, however, we must distinguish between the psychological and moral. The child may be given a wrong tendency from birth, not only by hereditary transmission, but by the imitation of sinful parents; yet the question of the child's own personal responsibility is altogether another matter. Modern society has come to recognize something of the force of this distinction. In dealing with extreme cases of this kind, the question of the personal guilt of the child is not raised. The attempt is to throw round about the child an environment that will correct the abnormal tendency. But there can be little gainsaying the fact that the presence of sin in the life of the parent may go as far as to mark the life of the child with the sinful tendency.
The positive force of sinful life also appears in the effect of sin upon the environment of men. It is not necessary for us to believe that all the physical universe was cursed by the Almighty because of man's sin, in order to hold that there is a curse upon the world because of the presence of sinful men. Men have sinfully despoiled the world for their own selfish purposes. They have wasted its resources. They have turned forces which ought to have made for good into the channels of evil. In their contacts with one another also, evil men furnish an evil environment. If the employer of 100 men be himself evil, he is to a great extent the evil environment of those 100 men. The curse of his evil is upon them. So with the relations of men in larger social groups: the forces of state-life which are intended to work for good can be made to work for evil. So far has this gone that some earnest minds have thought of the material and social realms as necessarily and inherently evil. In other days this led to retreats from the world in monasteries and in solitary cells. In our present time the same thought is back of much of the pessimist idea that the world itself is like a sinking ship, absolutely doomed. The most we can hope for is to save individuals here and there from imminent destruction. Yet a more Biblical conception keeps clear of all this. The material forces of the world-apart from certain massive physical necessities (e.g. earthquakes, storms, floods, whirlwinds, fires, etc.), whose presence does more to furnish the conditions of moral growth than to discourage that growth-are what men cause them to be. Social forces are nothing apart from the men who are themselves the forces. No one can deny that evil men can use physical forces for evil purposes, and that evil men can make bad social forces, but both these forces can be used for good as well as for evil. "The whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain" waiting for the redemption at the hands of the sons of God (Romans 8:19-23).
In the thought of Jesus, righteousness is life. Jesus came that men might have life (John 10:10). It must follow therefore that in His thought sin is death, or rather it is the positive course of transgression which makes toward death (John 5:24). But man is to cease to do evil and to learn to do well. He is to face about and walk in a different direction; he is to be born from above (John 3:3), and surrender himself to the forces which beat upon him from above rather than to those which surge upon him from below (Romans 12:2). From the realization of the positiveness both of sin and of righteousness, we see the need of a positive force which is to bring men from sin to righteousness (John 3:3-8).
Of course, in what we have said of the positive nature of sin we would not deny that there are multitudes of men whose evil consists in their passive acquiescence in a low moral state. Multitudes of men may not be lost, in the sense that they are breaking the more obvious of the commandments. They are lost, in the sense that they are drifting about, or that they are existing in a condition of inertness with no great interest in high spiritual ideals. But the problem even here is to find a force strong enough and positive enough to bring such persons to themselves and to God. In any case the Scriptures lay stress upon the seriousness of the problem constituted by sin. The Bible is centered on redemption. Redemption from sin is thought of as carrying with it redemption from all other calamities. If the kingdom of God and of His righteousness can be seized, all other things will follow with the seizure (Matthew 6:33). The work of Christ is set before us as chiefly a work of redemption from sin. A keen student once observed that almost all failures to take an adequate view of the person of Christ can be traced to a failure to realize adequately the seriousness of sin. The problem of changing the course of something so positive as a life set toward sin is a problem which may well tax the resources of the Almighty. Lives cannot be transformed merely by precept. The only effective force is the force of a divine life which will reach and save human lives.
12. Life in Christ:
We are thus in a position to see something of the positiveness of the life that must be in Christ if He is to be a Saviour from sin. That positiveness must be powerful enough to make men feel that in some real sense God Himself has come to their rescue (Romans 8:32-39). For the problem of salvation from sin is manifold. Sin long persisted in begets evil habits, and the habits must be broken. Sin lays the conscience under a load of distress, for which the only relief is a sense of forgiveness. Sin blights and paralyzes the faculties to such a degree that only the mightiest of tonic forces can bring back health and strength. And the problem is often more serious than this. The presence of evil in the world is so serious in the sight of a Holy God that He Himself, because of His very holiness, must be under stupendous obligation to aid us to the utmost for the redemption of men. Out of the thought of the disturbance which sin makes even in the heart of God, we see something of the reason for the doctrine that in the cross of Christ God was discharging a debt to Himself and to the whole world; for the insistence also that in the cross there is opened up a fountain of life, which, if accepted by sinful men, will heal and restore them.
It is with this seriousness of sin before us that we must think of forgiveness from sin. We can understand very readily that sin can be forgiven only on condition that men seek forgiveness in the name of the highest manifestation of holiness which they have known. For those who have heard the preaching of the cross and have seen something of the real meaning of that preaching, the way to forgiveness is in the name of the cross. In the name of a holiness which men would make their own, if they could; in the name of an ideal of holy love which men of themselves cannot reach, but which they forever strive after, they seek forgiveness. But the forgiveness is to be taken seriously. In both the Old Testament and New Testament repentance is not merely a changed attitude of mind. It is an attitude which shows its sincerity by willingness to do everything possible to undo the evil which the sinner has wrought (Luke 19:8). If there is any consequence of the sinner's own sin which the sinner can himself make right, the sinner must in himself genuinely repent and make that consequence right. In one sense repentance is not altogether something done once for all. The seductiveness of sin is so great that there is need of humble and continuous watching. While anything like a morbid introspection is unscriptural, constant alertness to keep to the straight and narrow path is everywhere enjoined as an obligation (Galatians 6:1).
There is nothing in the Scriptures which will warrant the idea that forgiveness is to be conceived of in such fashion as would teach that the consequences of sin can be easily and quickly eliminated. Change in the attitude of a sinner necessarily means change in the attitude of God. The sinner and God, however, are persons, and the Scriptures always speak of the problem of sin after a completely personal fashion. The changed attitude affects the personal standing of the sinner in the sight of God. But God is the person who creates and carries on a moral universe. In carrying on that universe He must keep moral considerations in their proper place as the constitutional principles of the universe. While the father welcomes back the prodigal to the restored personal relations with himself, he cannot, in the full sense, blot out the fact that the prodigal has been a prodigal. The personal forgiveness may be complete, but the elimination of the consequences of the evil life is possible only through the long lines of healing set at work. The man who has sinned against his body can find restoration from the consequences of the sin only in the forces which make for bodily healing. So also with the mind and will. The mind which has thought evil must be cured of its tendency to think evil. To be sure the curative processes may come almost instantly through the upheaval of a great experience, but on the other hand, the curative processes may have to work through long years (see SANCTIFICATION). The will which has been given to sin may feel the stirrings of sin after the life of forgiveness has begun. All this is a manifestation, not only of the power of sin, but of the constitutional morality of the universe. Forgiveness must not be interpreted in such terms as to make the transgression of the Law of God in any sense a light or trivial offense. But, on the other hand, we must not set limits to the curative powers of the cross of God. With the removal of the power which makes for evil the possibility of development in real human experience is before the life (see FORGIVENESS). The word of the Master is that He "came that they may have life, and may have it abundantly" (John 10:10). Sin is serious, because it thwarts life. Sin is given so large a place in the thought of the Biblical writers simply because it blocks the channel of that movement toward the fullest life which the Scriptures teach is the aim of God in placing men in the world. God is conceived of as the Father in Heaven. Sin has a deeply disturbing effect in restraining the relations between the Father and the sons and of preventing the proper development of the life of the sons.
See further ETHICS, I, 3, (2); ETHICS OF JESUS, I, 2; GUILT; JOHANNINE THEOLOGY, V, 1; PAUL, THE APOSTLE; PAULINE THEOLOGY; REDEMPTION, etc. LITERATURE.
Tennant, Origin and Propagation of Sin; Hyde, Sin and Its Forgiveness; chapter on "Incarnation and Atonement" in Bowne's Studies in Christianity; Stevens, Christian Doctrine of Salvation; Clarke, Christian Doctrine of God; various treatises on Systematic Theology.
Francis J. McConnell
sin (cin, "clay or mud"; Suene, Codex Alexandrinus Tanis): A city of Egypt mentioned only in Ezekiel 30:15, 16. This seems to be a pure Semitic name. The ancient Egyptian name, if the place ever had one such, is unknown. Pelusium (Greek Pelousion) also meant "the clayey or muddy town." The Pelusiac mouth of the Nile was "the muddy mouth," and the modern Arabic name of this mouth has the same significance. These facts make it practically certain that the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) is correct in identifying Sin with Pelusium. But although Pelusium appears very frequently in ancient history, its exact location is still not entirely certain. The list of cities mentioned in Ezekiel in connection with Sin furnishes no clue to its location. From other historical notices it seems to have been a frontier city. Rameses II built a wall from Sin to Heliopolis, probably by the aid of Hebrew slaves (Diodorus Siculus; compare Budge, History of Egypt, V, 90), to protect the eastern frontier. Sin was a meeting-place of Egypt with her enemies who came to attack her, many great battles being fought at or near this place. Sennacherib and Cambyses both fought Egypt near Pelusium (Herodotus ii0.141; iii.10-13). Antiochus IV defeated the Egyptians here (Budge, VIII, 25), and the Romans under Gabinius defeated the Egyptians in the same neighborhood. Pelusium was also accessible from the sea, or was very near a seaport, for Pompey after the disaster at Pharsalia fled into Egypt, sailing for Pelusium. These historical notices of Pelusium make its usual identification with the ruins near el-Kantara, a station on the Suez Canal 29 miles South of Port Said, most probable. "Sin, the stronghold of Egypt," in the words of Ezekiel (30:15), would thus refer to its inaccessibility because of swamps which served as impassable moats. The wall on the South and the sea on the North also protected it on either flank.
M. G. Kyle
See SIN MONEY; SIN OFFERING.
SIN AGAINST THE HOLY GHOST (SPIRIT)
SIN, MAN OF
See MAN OF SIN.
SIN, WILDERNESS OF
See WANDERINGS OF ISRAEL.
Is "any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of God" (1 John 3:4; Romans 4:15), in the inward state and habit of the soul, as well as in the outward conduct of the life, whether by omission or commission (Romans 6:12-17; 7:5-24). It is "not a mere violation of the law of our constitution, nor of the system of things, but an offence against a personal lawgiver and moral governor who vindicates his law with penalties. The soul that sins is always conscious that his sin is (1) intrinsically vile and polluting, and (2) that it justly deserves punishment, and calls down the righteous wrath of God. Hence sin carries with it two inalienable characters, (1) ill-desert, guilt (reatus); and (2) pollution (macula).", Hodge's Outlines.
The moral character of a man's actions is determined by the moral state of his heart. The disposition to sin, or the habit of the soul that leads to the sinful act, is itself also sin (Romans 6:12-17; Galatians 5:17; James 1:14, 15).
The origin of sin is a mystery, and must for ever remain such to us. It is plain that for some reason God has permitted sin to enter this world, and that is all we know. His permitting it, however, in no way makes God the author of sin.
Adam's sin (Genesis 3:1-6) consisted in his yielding to the assaults of temptation and eating the forbidden fruit. It involved in it, (1) the sin of unbelief, virtually making God a liar; and (2) the guilt of disobedience to a positive command. By this sin he became an apostate from God, a rebel in arms against his Creator. He lost the favour of God and communion with him; his whole nature became depraved, and he incurred the penalty involved in the covenant of works.
Original sin. "Our first parents being the root of all mankind, the guilt of their sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature were conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by ordinary generation." Adam was constituted by God the federal head and representative of all his posterity, as he was also their natural head, and therefore when he fell they fell with him (Romans 5:12-21; 1 Corinthians 15:22-45). His probation was their probation, and his fall their fall. Because of Adam's first sin all his posterity came into the world in a state of sin and condemnation, i.e., (1) a state of moral corruption, and (2) of guilt, as having judicially imputed to them the guilt of Adam's first sin.
"Original sin" is frequently and properly used to denote only the moral corruption of their whole nature inherited by all men from Adam. This inherited moral corruption consists in, (1) the loss of original righteousness; and (2) the presence of a constant proneness to evil, which is the root and origin of all actual sin. It is called "sin" (Romans 6:12, 14, 17; 7:5-17), the "flesh" (Galatians 5:17, 24), "lust" (James 1:14, 15), the "body of sin" (Romans 6:6), "ignorance," "blindness of heart," "alienation from the life of God" (Ephesians 4:18, 19). It influences and depraves the whole man, and its tendency is still downward to deeper and deeper corruption, there remaining no recuperative element in the soul. It is a total depravity, and it is also universally inherited by all the natural descendants of Adam (Romans 3:10-23; 5:12-21; 8:7). Pelagians deny original sin, and regard man as by nature morally and spiritually well; semi-Pelagians regard him as morally sick; Augustinians, or, as they are also called, Calvinists, regard man as described above, spiritually dead (Ephesians 2:1; 1 John 3:14).
The doctrine of original sin is proved,
(1.) From the fact of the universal sinfulness of men. "There is no man that sinneth not" (1 Kings 8:46; Isaiah 53:6; Psalm 130:3; Romans 3:19, 22, 23; Galatians 3:22).
(2.) From the total depravity of man. All men are declared to be destitute of any principle of spiritual life; man's apostasy from God is total and complete (Job 15:14-16; Genesis 6:5, 6).
(3.) From its early manifestation (Psalm 58:3; Proverbs 22:15).
(4.) It is proved also from the necessity, absolutely and universally, of regeneration (John 3:3; 2 Corinthians 5:17).
(5.) From the universality of death (Romans 5:12-20).
Various kinds of sin are mentioned,
(1.) "Presumptuous sins," or as literally rendered, "sins with an uplifted hand", i.e., defiant Acts of sin, in contrast with "errors" or "inadvertencies" (Psalm 19:13).
(2.) "Secret", i.e., hidden sins (19:12); sins which escape the notice of the soul.
(3.) "Sin against the Holy Ghost" (q.v.), or a "sin unto death" (Matthew 12:31, 32; 1 John 5:16), which amounts to a wilful rejection of grace.
Sin, a city in Egypt, called by the Greeks Pelusium, which means, as does also the Hebrew name, "clayey" or "muddy," so called from the abundance of clay found there. It is called by Ezekel (Ezek. 30:15) "the strength of Egypt, "thus denoting its importance as a fortified city. It has been identified with the modern Tineh, "a miry place," where its ruins are to be found. Of its boasted magnificence only four red granite columns remain, and some few fragments of others.
Sin, Wilderness of
Lying between Elim and sinai (Exodus 16:1; Comp. Numbers 33:11, 12). This was probably the narrow plain of el-Markha, which stretches along the eastern shore of the Red Sea for several miles toward the promontory of Ras Mohammed, the southern extremity of the Sinitic Peninsula. While the Israelites rested here for some days they began to murmur on account of the want of nourishment, as they had by this time consumed all the corn they had brought with them out of Egypt. God heard their murmurings, and gave them "manna" and then quails in abundance.
1. (adv., prep., & conj.) Old form of Since.
2. (n.) Transgression of the law of God; disobedience of the divine command; any violation of God's will, either in purpose or conduct; moral deficiency in the character; iniquity; as, sins of omission and sins of commission.
3. (n.) An offense, in general; a violation of propriety; a misdemeanor; as, a sin against good manners.
4. (n.) A sin offering; a sacrifice for sin.
5. (n.) An embodiment of sin; a very wicked person.
6. (n.) To depart voluntarily from the path of duty prescribed by God to man; to violate the divine law in any particular, by actual transgression or by the neglect or nonobservance of its injunctions; to violate any known rule of duty; -- often followed by against.
7. (n.) To violate human rights, law, or propriety; to commit an offense; to trespass; to transgress.Sin (782 Occurrences)
Matthew 3:2 Saying, Let your hearts be turned from sin; for the kingdom of heaven is near. (BBE)
Matthew 4:17 From that time Jesus went about preaching and saying, Let your hearts be turned from sin, for the kingdom of heaven is near. (BBE)
Matthew 5:29 And if thy right eye shall cause thee to sin, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. (WBS RSV NIV)
Matthew 5:30 And if thy right hand shall cause thee to sin, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. (WBS RSV NIV)
Matthew 6:14 For if you let men have forgiveness for their sins, you will have forgiveness from your Father in heaven. (Root in BBE NIV)
Matthew 11:6 And a blessing will be on him who has no doubts about me. (Root in BBE WBS)
Matthew 12:31 Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven men. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 13:41 The Son of Man will commission His angels, and they will gather out of His Kingdom all causes of sin and all who violate His laws; (WEY RSV NIV)
Matthew 17:27 "However, lest we cause them to sin, go and throw a hook into the Lake, and take the first fish that comes up. When you open its mouth, you will find a shekel in it: bring that coin and give it to them for yourself and me." (WEY)
Matthew 18:6 But whoever shall cause one of these little ones who believe in me, to sin, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea. (WBS RSV NIV)
Matthew 18:7 "Woe to the world because of occasions of stumbling! For it must be that the occasions come, but woe to that person through whom the occasion comes! (See RSV NIV)
Matthew 18:8 If your hand or your foot is causing you to fall into sin, cut it off and away with it. It is better for you to enter into Life crippled in hand or foot than to remain in possession of two sound hands or feet but be thrown into the fire of the Ages. (Root in WEY WBS RSV NIV)
Matthew 18:9 And if your eye is causing you to fall into sin, tear it out and away with it; it is better for you to enter into Life with only one eye, than to remain in possession of two eyes but be thrown into the Gehenna of fire. (Root in WEY WBS RSV NIV)
Matthew 18:15 "If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. (Root in WEB ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 18:21 Then Peter came and said to him, "Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Until seven times?" (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 23:32 Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. (See NIV)
Matthew 26:28 for this is my blood of the new covenant, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 27:4 saying, "I have sinned in that I betrayed innocent blood." But they said, "What is that to us? You see to it." (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 1:4 John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 1:15 And saying, The time has come, and the kingdom of God is near: let your hearts be turned from sin and have faith in the good news. (BBE)
Mark 3:29 but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin" (WEB WEY ASV DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:42 And whoever shall cause one of these little ones that believe in me, to fall into sin, it is better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea. (WBS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:43 If your hand should cause you to sin, cut it off: it would be better for you to enter into Life maimed, than remain in possession of both your hands and go away into Gehenna, into the fire which cannot be put out. (WEY WBS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:45 Or if your foot should cause you to sin, cut it off: it would be better for you to enter into Life crippled, than remain in possession of both your feet and be thrown into Gehenna. (WEY WBS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:47 Or if your eye should cause you to sin, tear it out. It would be better for you to enter into the Kingdom of God half-blind than remain in possession of two eyes and be thrown into Gehenna, (WEY WBS RSV NIV)
Luke 3:3 He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 15:18 I will get up and go to my father, and will tell him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 15:21 The son said to him,'Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.' (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 17:1 Then he said to the disciples, It is impossible but that causes of sin will come: but woe to him by whom they come! (WBS RSV NIV)
Luke 17:2 It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than that he should cause one of these little ones to fall into sin. (WBS RSV NIV)
Luke 17:3 Be careful. If your brother sins against you, rebuke him. If he repents, forgive him. (Root in WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 17:4 If he sins against you seven times in the day, and seven times returns, saying,'I repent,' you shall forgive him." (Root in WEB ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 1:29 The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 5:14 Afterward Jesus found him in the temple, and said to him, "Behold, you are made well. Sin no more, so that nothing worse happens to you." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:7 But when they continued asking him, he looked up and said to them, "He who is without sin among you, let him throw the first stone at her." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:11 She said, "No one, Lord." Jesus said, "Neither do I condemn you. Go your way. From now on, sin no more." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:21 Jesus said therefore again to them, "I am going away, and you will seek me, and you will die in your sins. Where I go, you can't come." (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:34 Jesus answered them, "Most certainly I tell you, everyone who commits sin is the bondservant of sin. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:46 Which of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 9:2 His disciples asked him, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?" (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 9:3 Jesus answered, "Neither did this man sin, nor his parents; but, that the works of God might be revealed in him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 9:34 They answered him, "You were altogether born in sins, and do you teach us?" They threw him out. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 9:41 Jesus said to them, "If you were blind, you would have no sin; but now you say,'We see.' Therefore your sin remains. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
John 15:22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have had sin; but now they have no excuse for their sin. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 15:24 If I hadn't done among them the works which no one else did, they wouldn't have had sin. But now have they seen and also hated both me and my Father. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 16:8 When he has come, he will convict the world about sin, about righteousness, and about judgment; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 16:9 about sin, because they don't believe in me; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 19:11 Jesus answered, "You would have no power at all against me, unless it were given to you from above. Therefore he who delivered me to you has greater sin." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 1:25 To take that position as a servant and Apostle, from which Judas by his sin was shut out, so that he might go to his place. (BBE DBY)
Acts 7:60 He kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, "Lord, don't hold this sin against them!" When he had said this, he fell asleep. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 8:23 For I see that you are prisoned in bitter envy and the chains of sin. (BBE NIV)
Acts 25:8 while he said in his defense, "Neither against the law of the Jews, nor against the temple, nor against Caesar, have I sinned at all." (Root in WEB ASV YLT)
Romans 1:30 They were secret backbiters, open slanderers; hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful; inventors of new forms of sin, disobedient to parents, destitute of common sense, (WEY)
Romans 2:12 For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 3:9 What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously warned both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 3:20 Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 3:23 for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 4:8 Blessed is the man whom the Lord will by no means charge with sin." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 5:12 Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 5:13 For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 5:16 The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 5:20 The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace abounded more exceedingly; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 5:21 that as sin reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:1 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:2 May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:6 knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:7 For he who has died has been freed from sin. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:10 For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:11 Thus consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:12 Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:13 Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:14 For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:15 What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:16 Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:17 But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:18 Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:20 For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:22 But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:7 What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:8 But sin, finding occasion through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of coveting. For apart from the law, sin is dead. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:9 I was alive apart from the law once, but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:11 for sin, finding occasion through the commandment, deceived me, and through it killed me. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:13 Did then that which is good become death to me? May it never be! But sin, that it might be shown to be sin, by working death to me through that which is good; that through the commandment sin might become exceeding sinful. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:14 For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:17 So now it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:20 But if what I don't desire, that I do, it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:23 but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 7:25 I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 8:2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 8:3 For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 8:10 If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 14:23 But he who doubts is condemned if he eats, because it isn't of faith; and whatever is not of faith is sin. (24) Now to him who is able to establish you according to my Good News and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which has been kept secret through long ages, (25) but now is revealed, and by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the eternal God, is made known for obedience of faith to all the nations; (26) to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever! Amen. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 16:17 Now I beg you, brothers, look out for those who are causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling, contrary to the doctrine which you learned, and turn away from them. (Root in WEB WEY ASV BBE YLT)
1 Corinthians 1:8 Who will give you strength to the end, to be free from all sin in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 5:1 It is said, in fact, that there is among you a sin of the flesh, such as is not seen even among the Gentiles, that one of you has his father's wife. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 6:18 Flee sexual immorality! "Every sin that a man does is outside the body," but he who commits sexual immorality sins against his own body. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 7:28 But if you marry, you have not sinned. If a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will have oppression in the flesh, and I want to spare you. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 7:36 But if any man thinks that he is behaving inappropriately toward his virgin, if she is past the flower of her age, and if need so requires, let him do what he desires. He doesn't sin. Let them marry. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Continued...Sin (782 Occurrences)
... The soul that sins is always conscious that his sin is (1) intrinsically vile and
polluting, and (2) that it justly deserves punishment, and calls down the ...
biblethesaurus.com/s/sin.htm - 82k
Sin-offerings (8 Occurrences)
Sin-offerings. << Sin-offering, Sin-offerings. Sins >>. Multi-Version
Concordance Sin-offerings (8 Occurrences). Hebrews ...
biblethesaurus.com/s/sin-offerings.htm - 9k
Sin's (3 Occurrences)
... Multi-Version Concordance Sin's (3 Occurrences). ... So then with the mind, I myself
serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. (WEB DBY). ...
biblethesaurus.com/s/sin's.htm - 7k
Sin-money (1 Occurrence)
Sin-money. << Sinlessness, Sin-money. Sinned >>. Multi-Version Concordance
Sin-money (1 Occurrence). 2 Kings 12:16 The trespass ...
biblethesaurus.com/s/sin-money.htm - 6k
Sin-offering (115 Occurrences)
Sin-offering. << Sinoffering, Sin-offering. Sin-offerings >>. Easton's Bible
Dictionary (Hebrews hattath), the law of, is given in detail ...
biblethesaurus.com/s/sin-offering.htm - 38k
...sin'-les-nes: The 15th Anglican article ("Of Christ Alone without Sin") may be quoted
as a true summary of Scripture teaching on sinlessness: "Christ in the ...
biblethesaurus.com/s/sinlessness.htm - 10k
Committing (30 Occurrences)
... (WEY DBY YLT). John 8:34 Jesus answered them, 'Verily, verily, I say to you --
Every one who is committing sin, is a servant of the sin, (YLT). ...
biblethesaurus.com/c/committing.htm - 15k
Kid (42 Occurrences)
... Leviticus 4:23 Or if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, come to his knowledge; he
shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a male without blemish: (KJV WBS ...
biblethesaurus.com/k/kid.htm - 20k
...Sin-offerings were also presented at the five annual festivals (Numbers 28, 29),
and on the occasion of the consecration of the priests (Exodus 29:10-14, 36). ...
biblethesaurus.com/s/sinoffering.htm - 8k
Commits (39 Occurrences)
... (WEB WEY DBY NAS RSV NIV). John 8:34 Jesus answered them, "Most certainly I tell
you, everyone who commits sin is the bondservant of sin. (WEB WEY NAS RSV). ...
biblethesaurus.com/c/commits.htm - 18k
264. hamartano -- to miss the mark, do wrong, sin
... to miss the mark, do wrong, sin. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: hamartano
Phonetic Spelling: (ham-ar-tan'-o) Short Definition: I sin Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/264.htm - 9k
265. hamartema -- a sin
... a sin. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: hamartema Phonetic Spelling:
(ham-ar'-tay-mah) Short Definition: a fault, sin, evil deed Definition: a fault ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/265.htm - 7k
266. hamartia -- a sin, failure
... a sin, failure. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: hamartia Phonetic
Spelling: (ham-ar-tee'-ah) Short Definition: a sin Definition: prop: missing ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/266.htm - 7k
4258. proamartano -- to sin before
... to sin before. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: proamartano Phonetic Spelling:
(pro-am-ar-tan'-o) Short Definition: I sin previously Definition: I sin ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4258.htm - 6k
51. agnoema -- a sin of ignorance
... a sin of ignorance. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: agnoema Phonetic
Spelling: (ag-no'-ay-mah) Short Definition: an offence committed through ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/51.htm - 6k
3900. paraptoma -- a false step, a trespass
... a trespass. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: paraptoma Phonetic Spelling:
(par-ap'-to-mah) Short Definition: a falling away, sin Definition: a ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3900.htm - 7k
2435. hilasterion -- propitiatory
... propitiatory. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: hilasterion Phonetic
Spelling: (hil-as-tay'-ree-on) Short Definition: a sin offering, covering ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2435.htm - 7k
4624. skandalizo -- to put a snare (in the way), hence to cause to ...
... Transliteration: skandalizo Phonetic Spelling: (skan-dal-id'-zo) Short Definition:
I cause to stumble Definition: I cause to stumble, cause to sin, cause to ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4624.htm - 8k
4417. ptaio -- to cause to stumble, to stumble
... to cause to stumble, to stumble. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: ptaio Phonetic
Spelling: (ptah'-yo) Short Definition: I stumble, fall, sin Definition: I ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4417.htm - 6k
2433. hilaskomai -- to be propitious, make propitiation for 2398. chata -- to miss, go wrong, sin
... Cognate: 2433 (akin to 2434 , "propitiation, appeasement/satisfaction of divine
wrath on sin") -- properly, to extend , showing mercy by satisfying (literally ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2433.htm - 7k
... << 2397, 2398. chata. 2399 >>. to miss, go wrong, sin. Transliteration: chata Phonetic
Spelling: (khaw-taw') Short Definition: sinned. Word Origin a prim. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/2398.htm - 6k
2403b. chattath -- sin, sin offering
... << 2403a, 2403b. chattath. 2404 >>. sin, sin offering. Transliteration: chattath
Short Definition: offering. Word Origin from chata Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/2403b.htm - 5k
2401. chataah -- sin, sin offering
... << 2400, 2401. chataah. 2402 >>. sin, sin offering. Transliteration: chataah
Phonetic Spelling: (khat-aw-aw') Short Definition: sin. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/2401.htm - 6k
2403. chatta'ah -- sinful thing, sin
... sinful thing, sin. Transliteration: chatta'ah Phonetic Spelling: (khat-taw-aw')
Short Definition: sin. punishment of sin, purification for sin, offering ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/2403.htm - 5k
5512a. Sin -- E. frontier city of Egypt
... << 5512, 5512a. Sin. 5512b >>. E. frontier city of Egypt. Transliteration: Sin Short
Definition: Sin. ... NASB Word Usage Sin (6). << 5512, 5512a. Sin. 5512b >>. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/5512a.htm - 5k
2399. chet -- a sin
... << 2398, 2399. chet. 2400 >>. a sin. Transliteration: chet Phonetic Spelling:
(khate) Short Definition: sin. Word Origin from chata Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/2399.htm - 6k
5512b. Sin -- wilderness between Elim and Sinai.
... << 5512a, 5512b. Sin. 5513 >>. wilderness between Elim and Sinai.
Transliteration: Sin Short Definition: Sin. Word Origin ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/5512b.htm - 5k
2409. chattaya -- sin offering
... << 2408, 2409. chattaya. 2410 >>. sin offering. Transliteration: chattaya Phonetic
Spelling: (khat-taw-yaw') Short Definition: offering. ... sin offering. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/2409.htm - 6k
7683. shagag -- to go astray, commit sin or error
... to go astray, commit sin or error. Transliteration: shagag Phonetic Spelling:
(shaw-gag') Short Definition: also. ... deceived, err, go astray, sin ignorantly. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/7683.htm - 6k
2408. chatay -- a sin
... << 2407, 2408. chatay. 2409 >>. a sin. Transliteration: chatay Phonetic Spelling:
(khat-ee') Short Definition: sins. Word ... sin. (Aramaic ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/2408.htm - 6k
Sin and Forgiveness
... THE BOOK OF EXODUS SIN AND FORGIVENESS. '... Forgiving iniquity and transgression
and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty....'Exodus 24:7. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture k/sin and forgiveness.htm
... Chapter III. Sin. The time was when there was no sin in this world. At that time
it was an Eden. By man transgressing God's holy law sin entered this world. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/orr/the gospel day /chapter iii sin.htm
On Original Sin
... FIFTH PART ON ORIGINAL SIN. Original sin is not that actual sin by which
Adam transgressed the law concerning the tree of knowledge ...
/.../arminius/the works of james arminius vol 2/on original sin.htm
Sin the Mocker
... THE PROVERBS SIN THE MOCKER. 'Fools make a mock at sin; but among the
righteous there is favour.'"Proverbs 14, 9. The wisdom of ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture g/sin the mocker.htm
The Hurt of Sin.
... The Human Jesus The Hurt of Sin. Now, in addition to these natural limitations
sin has made other changes. ... Sin affects the judgment. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/gordon/quiet talks about jesus/the hurt of sin.htm
How Sin came In
... GENESIS HOW SIN CAME IN. ... The reality of moral distinctions, the essential wrongness
of the sin, is obscured by a mist of sophistication. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture k/how sin came in.htm
... 4. The fall 3. Original Sin. Q-16: DID ALL MANKIND FALL IN ADAM'S FIRST TRANSGRESSION? ...
'By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin,' &c. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/watson/a body of divinity/3 original sin.htm
Whether Ignorance is a Sin?
... OF THE CAUSES OF SIN, IN PARTICULAR (FOUR ARTICLES) Whether ignorance is a
sin? Objection 1: It would seem that ignorance is not a sin. ...
/...//christianbookshelf.org/aquinas/summa theologica/whether ignorance is a sin.htm
Whether Drunkenness is a Sin?
... OF DRUNKENNESS (FOUR ARTICLES) Whether drunkenness is a sin? Objection
1: It would seem that drunkenness is not a sin. For every ...
/.../aquinas/summa theologica/whether drunkenness is a sin.htm
Whether Discord is a Sin?
... OF DISCORD, WHICH IS CONTRARY TO PEACE (TWO ARTICLES) Whether discord is
a sin? Objection 1: It would seem that discord is not a sin. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/aquinas/summa theologica/whether discord is a sin.htm
Sin Against the Holy Spirit
Sin Being Equal
Sin in Believers is a Reproach to the Lord
Sin is of the Devil
Sin is the Transgression of the Law
Sin Money: General Scriptures Concerning
Sin of Eli's Household
Sin: A City of Egypt
Sin: Against Knowledge
Sin: Against the Body
Sin: Aggravated by Neglecting Advantages
Sin: All Men are Conceived and Born In
Sin: All Men are Shapen In
Sin: All the Imaginations of the Unrenewed Heart Are
Sin: All Unrighteousness Is
Sin: Attempt to Cover, Vain
Sin: Blessings Withheld on Account of
Sin: Christ Alone Was Without
Sin: Christ Was Manifested to Take Away
Sin: Christ's Blood Cleanses From
Sin: Christ's Blood Redeems From
Sin: Coming from the Heart
Sin: Confession of
Sin: Confusion of Face Belongs to Those Guilty of
Sin: Consequences of, Entailed Upon Children
Sin: Dead Works
Sin: Death, the Punishment of
Sin: Death, the Wages of
Sin: Degrees In
Sin: Desert of, a Wilderness Between Elim and Sinai: Counted In
Sin: Desert of, a Wilderness Between Elim and Sinai: Manna and Quail Given In
Sin: Desert of, a Wilderness Between Elim and Sinai: The Complaint for Bread In
Sin: Desert of, a Wilderness Between Elim and Sinai: The People of Israel Journey Through
Sin: Entered Into the World by Adam
Sin: Excludes from Heaven
Sin: Fools Mock At
Sin: Forgiveness of
Sin: Fruits of
Sin: God Has Opened a Fountain For
Sin: God is Provoked to Anger By
Sin: God is Provoked to Jealousy By
Sin: God: Abominates
Sin: God: Alone Can Forgive
Sin: God: Marks
Sin: God: Punishes
Sin: God: Recompenses
Sin: God: Remembers
Sin: Guilt of Concerning
Sin: If we Say That we Have No, we Make God a Liar
Sin: Known to God
Sin: Leads to Disease
Sin: Leads to Disquiet
Sin: Leads to Shame
Sin: Like Scarlet and Crimson
Sin: Little Sins
Sin: Love of
Sin: Ministers should Warn the Wicked to Forsake
Sin: National, Punishment of
Sin: No Escape from the Consequences of
Sin: No Man Can Atone For
Sin: No Man Can Cleanse Himself From
Sin: No Man is Without
Sin: None in Heaven
Sin: Not Counted Against Righteous People
Sin: Often Manifold
Sin: Often Mighty
Sin: Often Presumptuous
Sin: Often Very Great
Sin: Omission of What we Know to be Good Is
Sin: Paul's Discussion of the Responsibility For
Sin: Pleasures of
Sin: Prayer Hindered By
Sin: Punishment of
Sin: Reaching to Heaven
Sin: Rebellion Against God
Sin: Reproaching the Lord
Sin: Repugnant to God
Sin: Repugnant to Righteous People
Sin: Saints: Abhor Themselves on Account of
Sin: Saints: Ashamed of Having Committed
Sin: Saints: Cannot Live In
Sin: Saints: Dead To
Sin: Saints: Have Yet the Remains of, in Them
Sin: Saints: Made Free From
Sin: Saints: Profess to Have Ceased From
Sin: Saints: Resolve Against
Sin: Scripture Concludes all Under
Sin: Secret Sins
Sin: Separates from God
Sin: Shall Find out the Wicked
Sin: should be Abhorred
Sin: should be Avoided Even in Appearance
Sin: should be Confessed
Sin: should be Departed From
Sin: should be Guarded Against
Sin: should be Hated
Sin: should be Mortified
Sin: should be Mourned Over
Sin: should be Put Away
Sin: should be Striven Against
Sin: should be Wholly Destroyed
Sin: Sinfulness of
Sin: Sometimes Open and Manifest
Sin: Sometimes Secret
Sin: Specially Strive Against Besetting
Sin: The Abominable Thing That God Hates
Sin: The Egyptians
Sin: The Entangling
Sin: The Fear of God Restrains
Sin: The Fruit of Lust
Sin: The Ground Was Cursed on Account of
Sin: The Holy Spirit Convinces of
Sin: The Israelites
Sin: The Law by Its Strictness Stirs Up
Sin: The Law is the Strength of
Sin: The Law is Transgressed by Every
Sin: The Law: Curses Those Guilty of
Sin: The Law: Gives Knowledge of
Sin: The Law: Made to Restrain
Sin: The Law: Shows Exceeding Sinfulness of
Sin: The Sodomites
Sin: The Sting of Death
Sin: The Thought of Foolishness Is
Sin: The Unpardonable
Sin: The Wicked: Boast of
Sin: The Wicked: Cannot Cease From
Sin: The Wicked: Dead In
Sin: The Wicked: Defy God in Committing
Sin: The Wicked: Delight in Those Who Commit
Sin: The Wicked: Encourage Themselves In
Sin: The Wicked: Encouraged In, by Prosperity
Sin: The Wicked: Excuse
Sin: The Wicked: Expect Impunity In
Sin: The Wicked: Guilty of, in Everything They Do
Sin: The Wicked: Heap Up
Sin: The Wicked: Led by Despair to Continue In
Sin: The Wicked: Make a Mock At
Sin: The Wicked: Plead Necessity For
Sin: The Wicked: Servants To
Sin: The Wicked: Shall Bear the Shame of
Sin: The Wicked: Tempt Others To
Sin: The Wicked: Throw the Blame of, on God
Sin: The Wicked: Throw the Blame of, on Others
Sin: The Wicked: Try to Conceal, from God
Sin: The Word of God Keeps From
Sin: To be Hated
Sin: Toil and Sorrow Originated In
Sin: Unclassified Scriptures Relating To, Defining and Illustrating
Sin: we should Pray to God: To Cleanse Us From
Sin: we should Pray to God: To Deliver Us From
Sin: we should Pray to God: To Forgive Our
Sin: we should Pray to God: To Keep Us From
Sin: we should Pray to God: To Make Us Know Our
Sin: we should Pray to God: To Search For, in Our Hearts
Sin: Whatever is not of Faith Is
Sin: when Finished Brings Forth Death
Sin: Works of Darkness
Sin-offerings (8 Occurrences)
Sin's (3 Occurrences)
Sin-money (1 Occurrence)
Sin-offering (115 Occurrences)
Committing (30 Occurrences)
Kid (42 Occurrences)
Commits (39 Occurrences)
Confessed (19 Occurrences)
Cord (47 Occurrences)
Committeth (22 Occurrences)
Sinneth (25 Occurrences)
Afford (12 Occurrences)
Suffice (22 Occurrences)
Sinning (59 Occurrences)
Acknowledge (61 Occurrences)
Covetousness (22 Occurrences)
Continual (55 Occurrences)
Sinful (61 Occurrences)
Blot (23 Occurrences)
Convict (12 Occurrences)
Atone (8 Occurrences)
Sting (5 Occurrences)
Slaughtereth (13 Occurrences)
Confession (22 Occurrences)
Azazel (3 Occurrences)
Slaves (119 Occurrences)
Conception (6 Occurrences)
Year-old (6 Occurrences)
Contrite (5 Occurrences)
Contrition (1 Occurrence)
Covet (14 Occurrences)
Coveting (3 Occurrences)
Advocate (7 Occurrences)
Atoned (8 Occurrences)
Sinfulness (3 Occurrences)
Slaughtered (72 Occurrences)
Apostate (5 Occurrences)
Sinner (88 Occurrences)
Yearling (48 Occurrences)
Commit (142 Occurrences)
Adultery (49 Occurrences)
Salvation (386 Occurrences)
Agony (20 Occurrences)
Burnt-offering (205 Occurrences)
Slaughter (121 Occurrences)
Committed (201 Occurrences)
Bullock (95 Occurrences)
Confess (65 Occurrences)
Conscious (93 Occurrences)
Shown (131 Occurrences)
Community (77 Occurrences)
Blemish (71 Occurrences)
Covetous (11 Occurrences)
Convicted (4 Occurrences)
Carnal (11 Occurrences)
Charging (27 Occurrences)
Cloke (7 Occurrences)
Concupiscence (3 Occurrences)
Afforded (2 Occurrences)
Acquittal (7 Occurrences)
Abound (36 Occurrences)
Advantage (44 Occurrences)
Abides (37 Occurrences)
Sennacherib (13 Occurrences)
Serving (85 Occurrences)
Sincere (18 Occurrences)
Stands (111 Occurrences)
Seizing (7 Occurrences)
Can't (180 Occurrences)
Sentence (53 Occurrences)
Claim (30 Occurrences)
Attack (221 Occurrences)
Sincerity (17 Occurrences)
Sacrificed (112 Occurrences)
Kinds (110 Occurrences)
Astray (116 Occurrences)