har'-d'-n (chazaq, qashah; skleruno):
(1) "Harden" occurs most frequently in the phrase "to harden the heart," or "the neck." This hardening of men's hearts is attributed both to God and to men themselves, e.g. with reference to the hearts of Pharaoh and the Egyptians; the Hiphil of chazaq, "to make strong," is frequently used in this connection (Exodus 4:21, "I will harden his heart," the Revised Version margin (Hebrew) "make strong"; Exodus 7:13, "And he hardened P.'s heart," the Revised Version (British and American) "was hardened," margin (Hebrew) "was strong"; Exodus 7:22; Exodus 8:19; Exodus 9:12; Exodus 10:20, 27, etc.; Exodus 14:17, "I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians," the Revised Version margin (Hebrew) "make strong"; compare Joshua 11:20); qashah, "to be heavy," "to make hard" (Exodus 7:3); kabhedh, "heavy," "slow," "hard," not easily moved (Exodus 10:1, the Revised Version margin (Hebrew) "made heavy"). When the hardening is attributed to man's own act kabhedh is generally used (Exodus 8:15, "He hardened his heart, and hearkened not," the Revised Version margin (Hebrew) "made heavy"; Exodus 8:32, "Pharaoh hardened his heart" (the Revised Version margin as before); Exodus 9:7, 34 1 Samuel 6:6 twice). The "hardening" of men's hearts by God is in the way of punishment, but it is always a consequence of their own self-hardening. In Pharaoh's case we read that "he hardened his heart" against the appeal to free the Israelites; so hardening himself, he became always more confirmed in his obstinacy, till he brought the final doom upon himself. This is how sin is made to become its own punishment. It was not confined to Pharaoh and the Egyptians nor does it belong to the past only. As Paul says (Romans 9:18),"Whom he will he hardeneth" (skleruno); Exodus 11:7, "The election obtained it, and the rest were hardened" (the Revised Version (British and American) and King James Version margin, poroo, "to make hard" or "callous");a "Hardening in part hath befallen Israel" (porosis); compare John 12:40 (from Isaiah 6:10), "He hath blinded their eyes, and he hardened their heart"; Isaiah 63:17, "O Yahweh, why dost thou make us to err from thy ways, and hardenest our heart from thy fear?" (qashach, "to harden"); compare on the other side, as expressing the human blameworthiness, Job 9:4, "Who hath hardened himself against him, and prospered?" Mark 3:5, "being grieved at the hardening of their heart;" Mark 6:52, "Their heart was hardened"; Romans 2:5, "after thy hardness and impenitent heart." In Hebrew religious thought everything was directly attributed to God, and the hardening is God's work, in His physical and ethical constitution and laws of man's nature; but it is always the consequence of human action out of harmony therewith. Other instances of skleruno are in Acts 19:9 Hebrews 3:8, 13, 15; Hebrews 4:7.
(2) "Harden" in the sense of "to fortify one's self" (make one's self hard) is the translation of caladh, "to leap," "exult" (Job 6:10 the King James Version, "I would harden myself in sorrow," the Revised Version (British and American) "Let me exult in pain," margin "harden myself").
(3) In Proverbs 21:29 "harden" has the meaning of "boldness," "defiance" or "shamelessness" (brazen-faced); `azaz, Hiphil, "to strengthen one's countenance," "A wicked man hardeneth his face"; Delitzsch, "A godless man showeth boldness in his mien"; compare Proverbs 7:13 Ecclesiastes 8:1; see also HARD.
For "harden" the Revised Version (British and American) has "stubborn" (Exodus 7:14; Exodus 9:7, margin "heavy"); "hardenest" (Isaiah 63:17); "made stiff" (Jeremiah 7:26; Jeremiah 19:15); for "is hardened" (Job 39:16, the American Standard Revised Version "dealeth hardly," and the English Revised Version margin); "at the hardening" instead of "for the hardness" (Mark 3:5); "hardening" for "blindness" (Ephesians 4:18).
W. L. Walker
1. (v. t.) To make hard or harder; to make firm or compact; to indurate; as, to harden clay or iron.
2. (v. t.) To accustom by labor or suffering to endure with constancy; to strengthen; to stiffen; to inure; also, to confirm in wickedness or shame; to make unimpressionable.
3. (v. i.) To become hard or harder; to acquire solidity, or more compactness; as, mortar hardens by drying.
4. (v. i.) To become confirmed or strengthened, in either a good or a bad sense.Harden (22 Occurrences)
Romans 9:18 So then, he has mercy on whom he desires, and he hardens whom he desires. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 3:8 don't harden your hearts, as in the rebellion, like as in the day of the trial in the wilderness, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 3:15 while it is said, "Today if you will hear his voice, don't harden your hearts, as in the rebellion." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 4:7 he again defines a certain day, today, saying through David so long a time afterward (just as has been said), "Today if you will hear his voice, don't harden your hearts." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 4:21 Yahweh said to Moses, "When you go back into Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your hand, but I will harden his heart and he will not let the people go. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 7:3 I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 14:4 I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will follow after them; and I will get honor over Pharaoh, and over all his armies; and the Egyptians shall know that I am Yahweh." They did so. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 14:17 I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall go in after them: and I will get myself honor over Pharaoh, and over all his armies, over his chariots, and over his horsemen. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 3:28 and charge Jehoshua, and strengthen him, and harden him, for he doth pass over before this people, and he doth cause them to inherit the land which thou seest. (YLT)
Deuteronomy 10:16 and ye have circumcised the foreskin of your heart, and your neck ye do not harden any more; (YLT)
Deuteronomy 15:7 If a poor man, one of your brothers, is with you within any of your gates in your land which Yahweh your God gives you, you shall not harden your heart, nor shut your hand from your poor brother; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Joshua 11:20 For it was of Yahweh to harden their hearts, to come against Israel in battle, that he might utterly destroy them, that they might have no favor, but that he might destroy them, as Yahweh commanded Moses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 6:6 Why then do you harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts? When he had worked wonderfully among them, didn't they let the people go, and they departed? (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 17:14 Notwithstanding, they would not listen, but hardened their neck, like the neck of their fathers, who didn't believe in Yahweh their God. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
2 Chronicles 30:8 Now, harden not your necks, as your fathers; yield yourselves to Jehovah, and come to his sanctuary, which he has sanctified for ever; and serve Jehovah your God, that the fierceness of his anger may turn away from you. (DBY YLT)
Nehemiah 9:16 But they and our fathers dealt proudly and hardened their neck, and didn't listen to your commandments, (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Nehemiah 9:17 and refused to obey, neither were mindful of your wonders that you did among them, but hardened their neck, and in their rebellion appointed a captain to return to their bondage. But you are a God ready to pardon, gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and abundant in loving kindness, and didn't forsake them. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Job 6:10 Then should I yet have comfort; yea, I would harden myself in sorrow: let him not spare; for I have not concealed the words of the Holy One. (KJV WBS)
Job 16:5 I might harden you with my mouth, And the moving of my lips might be sparing. (YLT)
Psalms 95:8 Don't harden your heart, as at Meribah, as in the day of Massah in the wilderness, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 63:17 O Yahweh, why do you make us to err from your ways, and harden our heart from your fear? Return for your servants' sake, the tribes of your inheritance. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 7:26 Yet they hearkened not unto me, nor inclined their ear, but hardened their neck: they did worse than their fathers. (Root in KJV DBY WBS YLT)Provocation (20 Occurrences)
... Provocation (20 Occurrences). Hebrews 3:8 Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation,
in the day of temptation in the wilderness: (KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT). ...
biblethesaurus.com/p/provocation.htm - 15k
Rebellion (51 Occurrences)
... (See NAS). Hebrews 3:8 don't harden your hearts, as in the rebellion, like
as in the day of the trial in the wilderness, (WEB RSV NIV). ...
biblethesaurus.com/r/rebellion.htm - 22k
Provoked (70 Occurrences)
... (KJV). Hebrews 3:8 ye may not harden your hearts, as in the provocation,
in the day of the temptation in the wilderness, (See NAS). ...
biblethesaurus.com/p/provoked.htm - 28k
Bake (13 Occurrences)
... 2. (vt) To dry or harden (anything) by subjecting to heat, as, to bake bricks;
the sun bakes the ground. 3. (vt) To harden by cold. ...
biblethesaurus.com/b/bake.htm - 12k
Armies (361 Occurrences)
... Exodus 14:4 I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will follow after them; and I
will get honor over Pharaoh, and over all his armies; and the Egyptians shall ...
biblethesaurus.com/a/armies.htm - 38k
Pursue (104 Occurrences)
... Exodus 14:4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he may pursue after them; and
I will glorify myself in Pharaoh, and in all his host; and the Egyptians ...
biblethesaurus.com/p/pursue.htm - 38k
Honored (51 Occurrences)
... Exodus 14:4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them;
and I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians ...
biblethesaurus.com/h/honored.htm - 21k
Wonders (111 Occurrences)
... Yahweh said to Moses, "When you go back into Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh
all the wonders which I have put in your hand, but I will harden his heart ...
biblethesaurus.com/w/wonders.htm - 35k
To-day (208 Occurrences)
... Hebrews 3:15 seeing that the warning still comes to us, "To-day, if you hear His
voice, do not harden your hearts as your forefathers did in the time of the ...
biblethesaurus.com/t/to-day.htm - 37k
Face (780 Occurrences)
... "To harden the face" means to harden one's self against any sort of appeal (Proverbs
21:29 Isaiah 50:7 Jeremiah 5:3; compare Ezekiel 3:9). See also SPIT. ...
biblethesaurus.com/f/face.htm - 47k
4645. skleruno -- to harden
... to harden. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: skleruno Phonetic Spelling:
(sklay-roo'-no) Short Definition: I harden Definition: I harden, make hard, make ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4645.htm - 7k
4456. poroo -- to petrify, ie to harden 6798. tsanam -- to dry up, harden
... to petrify, ie to harden. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: poroo Phonetic Spelling:
(po-ro'-o) Short Definition: I harden, render callous Definition: I ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4456.htm - 7k
... << 6797, 6798. tsanam. 6799 >>. to dry up, harden. Transliteration: tsanam Phonetic
Spelling: (tsaw-nam') Short Definition: withered. Word Origin a prim. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/6798.htm - 5k
7280c. raga -- to harden
... raga. 7281 >>. to harden. Transliteration: raga Short Definition: hardens. Word
Origin a prim. root Definition to harden NASB Word Usage hardens (1). ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/7280c.htm - 5k
7188. qashach -- to make hard, treat roughly
... qashach. 7189 >>. to make hard, treat roughly. Transliteration: qashach Phonetic
Spelling: (kaw-shakh') Short Definition: harden. Word Origin a prim. ... harden. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/7188.htm - 6k
553. amets -- to be stout, strong, bold, alert
... root Definition to be stout, strong, bold, alert NASB Word Usage conquered (1),
courageous (11), determined (1), harden (1), hardened (1), increases (1), made ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/553.htm - 6k
2388. chazaq -- to be or grow firm or strong, strengthen
... in his grasp (1), forces (1), fortified (1), gain ascendancy (1), gave him strong
support (1), grasp (1), gripped (3), grow strong (1), harden (4), hardened (9 ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/2388.htm - 8k
5539. salad -- to spring
... root Definition to spring NASB Word Usage rejoice (1). harden self. A primitive
root; probably to leap (with joy), ie Exult -- harden self. << 5538, 5539. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/5539.htm - 5k
5810. azaz -- to be strong
... harden, impudent, prevail, strengthen self, be strong. A primitive root;
to be stout (literally or figuratively) -- harden, impudent ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/5810.htm - 6k
3513. kabad -- to be heavy, weighty, or burdensome
... 3), dull (2), enjoy your glory (1), glorified (4), glorify (7), glorious (2), glorious
things (1), grave (1), grew strong (1), harden (1), hardened (6 ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/3513.htm - 7k
8631. teqeph -- to grow strong
... 1), grown strong (1). make firm, harden, become strong. (Aramaic) corresponding
to taqaph; to become (causatively, make) mighty or ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/8631.htm - 6k
7185. qashah -- to be hard, severe or fierce
... to be hard, severe or fierce NASB Word Usage became stubborn* (2), cruel (1), defied*
(1), hard (1), hard thing (1), hard-pressed (1), harden (2), hardened (1 ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/7185.htm - 6k
How God Works in the Hearts of Men.
... God is very often said to blind and harden the reprobate, to turn their hearts,
to incline and impel them, as I have elsewhere fully explained (Book 1 c.18). ...
/.../calvin/the institutes of the christian religion/chapter 4 how god works.htm
The Hardening in the Sacred Scripture.
... This is plainly evident from God's charge to Moses concerning the king of Egypt:
"Thou shalt speak all that I command thee; and I will harden Pharaoh's heart ...
/.../kuyper/the work of the holy spirit/xxxiii the hardening in the.htm
Fundamental Oneness of the Dispensations.
... To-day if ye shall hear His voice, Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation,
Like as in the day of the temptation in the wilderness, Wherewith your ...
/.../chapter iii fundamental oneness of.htm
Hebrews iii. 11-Jul
... Hebrews iii. 7-11. Hebrews iii.7-11 "Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith, To-day
if ye will hear His voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation in the ...
/.../homilies on the gospel of st john and hebrews/homily vi hebrews iii 11-jul.htm
The Cause of Unbelief.
... that "God hardened his heart," but it is also said that "Pharaoh hardened his heart."
He chose, in the exercise of his voluntary agency, to harden his heart ...
/.../johnson/the new testament commentary vol iii john/the cause of unbelief.htm
The Reason Why one Person is Assisted by Grace, and Another is not ...
... you take away from Pharaoh free will, because in several passages God says, "I have
hardened Pharaoh;" or," I have hardened or I will harden Pharaoh's heart ...
/.../augustine/anti-pelagian writings/chapter 45 xxiiithe reason why.htm
Translation from the Greek.
... And now, the statements regarding Pharaoh have troubled many, respecting whom God
declared several times, "I will harden Pharaoh's heart."  For if he is ...
/.../origen/origen de principiis/translation from the greek.htm
The Aggressive Rejection.
... Eyes begin to harden and jaws become set. ... To His grief they harden their hearts against
His plea for saving a man, a life, as against a tradition. ...
/.../gordon/quiet talks about jesus/the aggressive rejection.htm
The First Great Group of Parables.
... In the original passage which Matthew quotes, Isaiah is apparently commanded
to harden the hearts of the people. If read superficially ...
/.../mcgarvey/the four-fold gospel/liv the first great group 2.htm
... One day the old vulcan was attempting to harden a cold chisel which he had made
of foreign steel, but could not succeed; "horsewhip it, father," exclaimed the ...
/.../philips/the christian home/chapter xix home-discipline.htm