an animal frequently mentioned in Scripture. It was used by the hebrews as a watch for their houses, (Isaiah 56:10) and for guarding their flocks. (Job 30:1) Then also, as now troops of hungry and semi-wild dogs used to wander about the fields and the streets of the cities, devouring dead bodies and other offal, (1 Kings 14:11; 21:19,23; 22:38; Psalms 59:6) and thus became so savage and fierce and such objects of dislike that fierce and cruel enemies are poetically styled dogs in (Psalms 22:16,20) moreover the dog being an unclean animal, (Isaiah 66:3) the epithets dog, dead dog, dog's head, were used as terms of reproach or of humility in speaking of one's self. (1 Samuel 24:14; 2 Samuel 3:8; 9:8; 16:9; 2 Kings 8:13)Dog
There are many dogs in the countries where the Bible was written, but the people do not like them as well as we do, and do not let them live about their yards and houses. So the dogs go wandering about without any master, and live on whatever they can find in the streets or around the markets. In Psalm 59 you will find the verse: "They return at evening; they make a noise like a dog, and go round about the city,"-and a little farther on you will see, "Let them wander up and down for meat, and grudge if they be not satisfied." These verses show that the dogs wandered about in those days just as they do now. Sometimes when they do not find enough to eat, they become very fierce and cruel, so that you would be afraid to meet one of them.
There is a sad story in some of the chapters of the two books of Kings, in which you will find these dogs mentioned. There was a very proud and wicked queen, named Jezebel, and she tried to make her husband, king Ahab, do all the evil she could. Once Ahab wanted a piece of ground that was near his palace, so that he might have it made into a garden, and he asked the owner of it, whose name was Naboth, to sell it to him. But Naboth was not willing, because he used it for his vineyard, and because his father had given it to him before he died. Then Ahab was very angry about it, and acted just as I have seen some foolish children do when they were not pleased. He went into his great splendid house, and laid himself down on the bed; then he turned his face towards the wall, and when it was dinner time he would not get up or eat any thing. So his wife Jezebel asked him what was the matter; and when she found out, she told him that he need not be troubled, for she could get that vineyard for him. Then she contrived to have Naboth killed by stoning, and when he was dead king Ahab took the vineyard.
Now you may be sure God was displeased with such wickedness as this, and you will think it was very right that he should punish the cruel Jezebel. Do you think her husband Ahab ought to be punished too? I do; because he knew that his wife was going to kill Naboth, and yet he did not try to keep her from doing it. I think he was as wicked as she. After Ahab had taken the vineyard, God sent to him the prophet Elijah to say to him these words, "Thus saith the Lord, In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth, shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine." And of Jezebel he said, "The dogs shall eat Jezebel by the wall of Jezreel." Now see how the word of God was fulfilled, just as he had said. Pretty soon after this, king Ahab went out to fight with his enemies, and as he was riding along in his carriage a man drew his great, strong bow, and shot an arrow which pierced the king and almost killed him. He lived a few hours, until nearly night, and then he died. The blood had run down from his wound into the carriage, and after the king was dead they took it to the pool of Samaria to wash it: there the dogs came and licked up the blood of Ahab.
The wicked Jezebel lived some years after this, and one of her sons became king; but God raised up another king, named Jehu, who slew this son, and then went to Jezreel, the city where Jezebel lived. She heard he was coming, and feared that he meant to put her to death; but she determined that, instead of begging him to spare her life, she would act as though she was still a queen, and then perhaps he would not dare to injure her. So she put ornaments on her head, and painted her face, and then sat down by an upper window in all the splendor of a queen. When Jehu came near, she called out to him in great anger and scorn, to reproach him for having put her son to death. When Jehu heard her voice and saw her sitting at the window, he cried out, "Who is on my side?" and two or three of the queen's officers looked out at the windows. Then he said to them, "Throw her down." They were very glad to get rid of the proud and cruel queen, and so they threw her down, as he had said. It was so far to the ground that she was killed immediately, and her blood was sprinkled upon the walls. But Jehu did not care for this; he went into the house to eat and drink. After he had taken his dinner, he thought of Jezebel, and told some of his servants that they must go and bury her: but in the mean time a terrible thing had happened. The dogs had seized and devoured the body, and nothing was left of it but the feet, and the palms of the hands, and part of the bones of the head. So God's word came to pass, "The dogs shall eat Jezebel."
kelebh; (compare Arabic kelb, "dog"); kuon; (and diminutive kunarion): References to the dog, both in the Old Testament and in the New Testament, are usually of a contemptuous character. A dog, and especially a dead dog, is used as a figure of insignificance. Goliath says to David (1 Samuel 17:43): "Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves?" David says to Saul (1 Samuel 24:14): "After whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea." Mephibosheth says to David (2 Samuel 9:8): "What is thy servant, that thou shouldest look upon such a dead dog as I am?" The same figure is found in the words of Hazael to Elisha (2 Kings 8:13). The meaning, which is obscure in the King James Version, is brought out well in the Revised Version: "But what is thy servant, who is but a dog, that he should do this great thing?" The characteristically oriental interrogative form of these expressions should be noted.
Other passages express by inference the low esteem in which dogs are held. Nothing worse could happen to a person than that his body should be devoured by dogs (1 Kings 14:11; 1 Kings 16:4; 1 Kings 21:19, 23, etc.). Job 30:1 says of the youth who deride him that he disdained to set their fathers with the dogs of his flock. In Philippians 3:2 and Revelation 22:15, dogs are coupled with evil-workers, sorcerers, etc. In Matthew 7:6 we read: "Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast your pearls before the swine." Job 30:1 (cited above) refers to the use of dogs to guard flocks; and the comparison of inefficient watchmen with dumb dogs (Isaiah 56:10) implies that at least some dogs are useful. In the apocryphal Book of Tob, Tobias' dog is his companion on his travels (Tobit 5:16; 11:04; on this see Expository Times, XI, 258; HDB, IV, 989; Geiger, Civilization of E. Iranians, I, 85).
There is further the reference to the greyhound (Proverbs 30:31 English Versions) as one of the four things which are "stately in their going." But the rendering, "greyhound," rests solely upon inference, and is contrary to the Septuagint and Vulgate, which have respectively alektor and gallus, i.e. "cock," the King James Version margin "horse." The Hebrew has zarzir mothnayim, which the King James Version margin renders "girt in the loins." the Revised Version, margin has "warhorse," Hebrew "well girt (or, well knit) in the loins." In support of the meaning, "girt," for zarzir, there is the word zer, which, with zarzir, is assigned to the obsolete root zarar and the Arabic zirr, "button," from zarr, "to button", "to compress." Further, to render zarzir by "cock" logically requires a change in the text, for mothnayim, "loins," becomes superlative and inappropriate (see Encyclopedia Biblica, under the word "Cock"). On the other hand, the Arabic zarzur is a starling (compare Arabic zarzar, "to utter cries," said of birds; carcar, "to cry out"; carcar, "cockroach," or "cricket"). Also, according to Encyclopedia Biblica (s. v. "Cock"), "the Talmudic zarzir. means some bird (a kind of raven)." If the text stands, there appears to be no better rendering than "girt in the loins," which might fairly be taken to refer to a war horse or to a greyhound. The Persian greyhound would in that case be understood, a hairy race, which, according to the Royal Natural History, is less fleet than the English breed and is used in chasing gazelles and in hunting the wild ass, and which according to Doughty (Arabia Deseria) is kept by the Bedouin. "These dogs are said to be sometimes girdled by their owners to prevent them from over-eating and becoming fat" (L. Fletcher, British Museum (Natural History)).
Domestic dogs have probably been derived from various species of wolves and jackals. In this connection, it is noteworthy that the dogs of certain regions greatly resemble the wolves of those regions. The pariah dogs of Syria and Palestine resemble the jackals, especially in color and in the tail, differing in their greater size and in the shape of muzzle and ears. It is fair to assume that they are much the same as existed in Bible times. They are in general meek and harmless creatures, and are valuable as scavengers, but disturb the night with their barking. Each quarter of the city has its own pack of dogs, which vigorously resents any invasion of its territory. A dog which for any reason finds itself in foreign territory gets home as quickly as possible, and is lucky if it does not have to run the gauntlet of a pack of vicious foes. The pariah dog is sometimes brought up to be a sheep dog, but the best shepherd dogs are great wolfish creatures, which are usually obtained from Kurdistan.
Alfred Ely Day
Frequently mentioned both in the Old and New Testaments. Dogs were used by the Hebrews as a watch for their houses (Isaiah 56:10), and for guarding their flocks (Job 30:1). There were also then as now troops of semi-wild dogs that wandered about devouring dead bodies and the offal of the streets (1 Kings 14:11; 16:4; 21:19, 23; 22:38; Psalm 59:6, 14).
As the dog was an unclean animal, the terms "dog," "dog's head," "dead dog," were used as terms of reproach or of humiliation (1 Samuel 24:14; 2 Samuel 3:8; 9:8; 16:9). Paul calls false apostles "dogs" (Philippians 3:2). Those who are shut out of the kingdom of heaven are also so designated (Revelation 22:15). Persecutors are called "dogs" (Psalm 22:16). Hazael's words, "Thy servant which is but a dog" (2 Kings 8:13), are spoken in mock humility=impossible that one so contemptible as he should attain to such power.
1. (n.) A quadruped of the genus Canis, esp. the domestic dog (C. familiaris).
2. (n.) A mean, worthless fellow; a wretch.
3. (n.) A fellow; -- used humorously or contemptuously; as, a sly dog; a lazy dog.
4. (n.) One of the two constellations, Canis Major and Canis Minor, or the Greater Dog and the Lesser Dog. Canis Major contains the Dog Star (Sirius).
5. (n.) An iron for holding wood in a fireplace; a firedog; an andiron.
6. (n.) A grappling iron, with a claw or claws, for fastening into wood or other heavy articles, for the purpose of raising or moving them.
7. (n.) An iron with fangs fastening a log in a saw pit, or on the carriage of a sawmill.
8. (n.) A piece in machinery acting as a catch or clutch; especially, the carrier of a lathe, also, an adjustable stop to change motion, as in a machine tool.
9. (v. t.) To hunt or track like a hound; to follow insidiously or indefatigably; to chase with a dog or dogs; to worry, as if by dogs; to hound with importunity.Dog (19 Occurrences)
2 Peter 2:22 But it has happened to them according to the true proverb, "The dog turns to his own vomit again," and "the sow that has washed to wallowing in the mire." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 11:7 But against any of the children of Israel a dog won't even bark or move its tongue, against man or animal; that you may know that Yahweh makes a distinction between the Egyptians and Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 22:31 "You shall be holy men to me, therefore you shall not eat any flesh that is torn by animals in the field. You shall cast it to the dogs. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 23:18 You shall not bring the hire of a prostitute, or the wages of a dog, into the house of Yahweh your God for any vow: for even both these are an abomination to Yahweh your God. "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Judges 7:5 So he brought down the people to the water; and Yahweh said to Gideon, "Everyone who laps of the water with his tongue, like a dog laps, you shall set him by himself; likewise everyone who bows down on his knees to drink." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:43 The Philistine said to David, "Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?" The Philistine cursed David by his gods. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 24:14 Against whom has the king of Israel come out? Whom do you pursue? A dead dog? A flea? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 3:8 Then was Abner very angry for the words of Ishbosheth, and said, "Am I a dog's head that belongs to Judah? Today I show kindness to the house of Saul your father, to his brothers, and to his friends, and have not delivered you into the hand of David; and yet you charge me this day with a fault concerning this woman! (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 9:8 He did obeisance, and said, "What is your servant, that you should look on such a dead dog as I am?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 16:9 Then Abishai the son of Zeruiah said to the king, "Why should this dead dog curse my lord the king? Please let me go over and take off his head." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 8:13 Hazael said, "But what is your servant, who is but a dog, that he should do this great thing?" Elisha answered, "Yahweh has shown me that you will be king over Syria." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 18:11 Terrors shall make him afraid on every side, and shall chase him at his heels. (See NIV)
Psalms 22:20 Deliver my soul from the sword, my precious life from the power of the dog. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 59:6 They return at evening, howling like dogs, and prowl around the city. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 59:14 At evening let them return. Let them howl like a dog, and go around the city. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 26:11 As a dog that returns to his vomit, so is a fool who repeats his folly. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 26:17 Like one who grabs a dog's ears is one who passes by and meddles in a quarrel not his own. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ecclesiastes 9:4 For to him who is joined with all the living there is hope; for a living dog is better than a dead lion. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 66:3 He who kills an ox is as he who kills a man; he who sacrifices a lamb, as he who breaks a dog's neck; he who offers an offering, as he who offers pig's blood; he who burns frankincense, as he who blesses an idol. Yes, they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delights in their abominations: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)Dog (19 Occurrences)
... As the dog was an unclean animal, the terms "dog," "dog's head," "dead dog," were
used as terms of reproach or of humiliation (1 Samuel 24:14; 2 Samuel 3:8; 9:8 ...
biblethesaurus.com/d/dog.htm - 20k
Dog-flies (6 Occurrences)
Dog-flies. << Dog, Dog-flies. Dog-fly >>. Multi-Version Concordance Dog-flies
(6 Occurrences). Exodus 8:21 For, if thou do not let my ...
biblethesaurus.com/d/dog-flies.htm - 8k
Dog's (3 Occurrences)
...Dog's (3 Occurrences). 2 Samuel 3:8 Then was Abner very angry for the words of
Ishbosheth, and said, "Am Ia dog's head that belongs to Judah? ...
biblethesaurus.com/d/dog's.htm - 7k
Dog-fly (1 Occurrence)
Dog-fly. << Dog-flies, Dog-fly. Dogged >>. Multi-Version Concordance
Dog-fly (1 Occurrence). Psalms 105:31 He gave the word ...
biblethesaurus.com/d/dog-fly.htm - 6k
Flea (2 Occurrences)
... after a dead dog, after a flea?" He thus speaks of himself as the poor, contemptible
object of the monarch's pursuit, a "worthy object truly for an expedition ...
biblethesaurus.com/f/flea.htm - 10k
Growl (11 Occurrences)
... Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (vi) To utter a deep guttural sound, as an angry dog;
to give forth an angry, grumbling sound. 2. (vt) To express by growling. ...
biblethesaurus.com/g/growl.htm - 9k
Bite (13 Occurrences)
... with the teeth, so that they enter or nip the thing seized; to lacerate, crush,
or wound with the teeth; as, to bite an apple; to bite a crust; the dog bit a ...
biblethesaurus.com/b/bite.htm - 12k
Dogs (30 Occurrences)
... (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV). Psalms 22:20 Deliver my soul from
the sword; mine only one from the power of the dog. (See NIV). ...
biblethesaurus.com/d/dogs.htm - 15k
Bondmen (117 Occurrences)
... Exodus 8:21 For, if thou do not let my people go, behold, I will send dog-flies
upon thee, and upon thy bondmen, and upon thy people, and into thy houses; and ...
biblethesaurus.com/b/bondmen.htm - 35k
Sow (61 Occurrences)
... 2 Peter 2:22 But it has happened to them according to the true proverb, "The dog
turns to his own vomit again," and "the sow that has washed to wallowing in ...
biblethesaurus.com/s/sow.htm - 26k
2965. kuon -- a dog
... a dog. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: kuon Phonetic Spelling:
(koo'-ohn) Short Definition: a dog Definition: a dog, universally despised in ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2965.htm - 6k
2952. kunarion -- a little dog
... a little dog. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: kunarion Phonetic Spelling:
(koo-nar'-ee-on) Short Definition: a little dog Definition: a little dog ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2952.htm - 6k
4657. skubalon -- refuse
... 4657 (from 2965 , "dog" and 906 , "throw") -- properly, thrown to dogs, like filthy
scraps of garbage (table-scraps, dung, muck, sweepings); (figuratively ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4657.htm - 7k
4525. saino -- to wag the tail, hence to greet, flatter, disturb
... agitate, flatter, move. Akin to seio; to wag (as a dog its tail fawningly), ie
(generally) to shake (figuratively, disturb) -- move. see GREEK seio. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4525.htm - 6k
1872. epakoloutheo -- to follow after
... Phonetic Spelling: (ep-ak-ol-oo-theh'-o) Short Definition: I follow close after,
endorse Definition: I follow close after, accompany, dog; I imitate, pursue ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1872.htm - 7k
4352. proskuneo -- to do reverence to
... From pros and a probable derivative of kuon (meaning to kiss, like a dog licking
his master's hand); to fawn or crouch to, ie (literally or figuratively ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4352.htm - 10k
1379. dogmatizo -- to decree, to subject oneself to an ordinance
... to decree, to subject oneself to an ordinance. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration:
dogmatizo Phonetic Spelling: (dog-mat-id'-zo) Short Definition: I subject ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1379.htm - 6k
2905. kraugazo -- to cry out
... shouting out.". [Plato uses 2905 () for the howling of a dog: 'The yelping
hound, (2905 ) at her lord' (, 607)" (, 501).]. Word Origin ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2905.htm - 7k
1378. dogma -- an opinion, (a public) decree
... an opinion, (a public) decree. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: dogma
Phonetic Spelling: (dog'-mah) Short Definition: a decree, edict, ordinance ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1378.htm - 6k
3703. opora -- late summer, ripe fruits 3611. keleb -- a dog
... fruit. Apparently from the base of opse and hora; properly, even-tide of the (summer)
season (dog-days), ie (by implication) ripe fruit -- fruit. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3703.htm - 6k
... << 3610, 3611. keleb. 3612 >>. a dog. Transliteration: keleb Phonetic Spelling:
(keh'-leb) Short Definition: dogs. Word Origin of uncertain ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/3611.htm - 5k
5024. nabach -- to bark
... Word Origin a prim. root Definition to bark NASB Word Usage bark (1). bark. A primitive
root; to bark (as a dog) -- bark. << 5023, 5024. nabach. 5025 >>. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/5024.htm - 5k
Christ and the Dog
... CHRIST AND THE DOG. ... It tells of how one day He was walking down a street in Jerusalem
and saw a company of people gathered about a dead dog in the street. ...
/.../chidley/fifty-two story talks to boys and girls/christ and the dog.htm
A Dog which Ate the Bible
... A DOG WHICH ATE THE BIBLE. I heard an amusing story sometime ago about a
savage in Africa who came to a missionary very much excited ...
/.../chidley/fifty-two story talks to boys and girls/a dog which ate the.htm
Dr. Arnott's Dog "Rover. "
... Dr. Arnott's Dog "Rover.". I remember when Dr. Arnott, who has gone to God,
was delivering a sermon, he used this illustration. The ...
/.../moody/moodys anecdotes and illustrations/dr arnotts dog rover.htm
... of serious injustice. I was one day walking in the street of a little town,
when a poor inoffensive dog passed me. He went quietly ...
/.../the village pulpit volume ii trinity to advent/xlv casting blame.htm
The Courage of the Saviour
... A dog, a tiger, and a horse, have courage, but they have no fortitude,"because
fortitude is a spiritual thing, and beasts have no spirits like ours. ...
/.../kingsley/twenty-five village sermons/sermon xxv the courage of.htm
"Two Missing" --"Go Ye. "
... A bit of warm food, and the like. Then out again to the out-house. There the dog
lay with her little ones. Again he called her. ... And the dog was plainly played. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/gordon/quiet talks on service/two missinggo ye.htm
In Danger of Death
... One day, when his people and even the servants had left him for a little while,
Stanislaus saw an enormous black dog with glaring eyes and hideous foaming jaws ...
/.../chapter viii in danger of.htm
Blind Force or Intelligence, Which?
... animal, with the same heat and air, will build up bodies of different types, one
as well as another, making human flesh in the human body, and dog's flesh in ...
/.../blind force or intelligence which.htm
Whether a Man May Make Oblations of Whatever He Lawfully Possesses ...
... Objection 2: Further, in the same passage it is forbidden to offer "the
price of a dog" in the house of God. But it is evident that ...
//christianbookshelf.org/aquinas/summa theologica/whether a man may make.htm
Whether the Just Man Alone May Eat Christ Sacramentally?
... honor did not understand; he hath been compared to senseless beasts, and made like
to them." But an irrational animal, such as a mouse or a dog, cannot receive ...
/...//christianbookshelf.org/aquinas/summa theologica/whether the just man alone.htm