the field of repentance; city of comfortCapernaum
(village of Nahum) was on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. (Matthew 4:13) comp. John 6:24 It was in the "land of Gennesaret," [ (Matthew 14:34) comp. John 6:17,21,24 ] It was of sufficient size to be always called a "city," (Matthew 9:1; Mark 1:33) had its own synagogue, in which our Lord frequently taught, (Mark 1:21; Luke 4:33,38; John 6:59) and there was also a customs station, where the dues were gathered both by stationary and by itinerant officers. (Matthew 9:9; 17:24; Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27) The only interest attaching to Capernaum is as the residence of our Lord and his apostles, the scene of so many miracles and "gracious words." It was when he returned thither that he is said to have been "in the house." (Mark 2:1) The spots which lay claim to its site are,
- Kahn Minyeh , a mound of ruins which takes its name from an old khan hard by. This mound is situated close upon the seashore at the northwestern extremity of the plain (now El Ghuweir).
- Three miles north of Khan Minyeh is the other claimant, Tell Hum , --ruins of walls and foundations covering a space of half a mile long by a quarter wide, on a point of the shore projecting into the lake and backed by a very gently-rising ground. It is impossible to locate it with certainty, but the probability is in favor of Tell Hum .
A chief city of Galilee in the time of Christ, not mentioned before the captivity in Babylon. It lay on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, about five miles from the Jordan and on the frequented route from Damascus to the Mediterranean. This seems to have been the residence of Christ, during the three years of his ministry, more than any other place. The brothers Andrew and Peter dwelt there; Christ often taught in the synagogue, and wrought mighty works there. Matthew 17:23 Mark 1:21-35 John 6:17,59; and it is called "his own city," Matthew 4:12-16 9:1 Mr 2:1. Its inhabitants were thus "exalted unto heaven;" but their unbelief and impenitence cast them down to destruction, Matthew 11:20-24. The very name and site of Capernaum have been lost. Dr. Robinson, however, finds them at Khan Minyeh, on the northern border of the fine plain of Gennesareth, where ruins of some extent still remain, and a copious fountain not far from the sea. CAPERNAUM
ka-per'-na-um (Kapernaoum (Textus Receptus), Kapharnaoum (Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Bezae; etc.)): The woe spoken by the Master against this great city has been fulfilled to the uttermost (Matthew 11:23 Luke 10:15). So completely has it perished that the very site is a matter of dispute today. In Scripture Capernaum is not mentioned outside the Gospels. When Jesus finally departed from Nazareth, He dwelt in Capernaum (Matthew 4:13) and made it the main center of His activity during a large part of His public ministry. Near by He called the fishermen to follow Him (Mark 1:16), and the publican from the receipt of custom (Matthew 9:9, etc.). It was the scene of many "mighty works" (Matthew 11:23 Mark 1:34). Here Jesus healed the centurion's son (Matthew 8:5, etc.), the nobleman's son (John 4:46), Simon Peter's mother-in-law (Mark 1:31, etc.), and the paralytic (Matthew 9:1, etc.); cast out the unclean spirit (Mark 1:23, etc.); and here also, probably, He raised Jairus' daughter to life (Mark 5:22, etc.). In Capernaum the little child was used to teach the disciples humility, while in the synagogue Jesus delivered His ever-memorable discourse on the bread of life (John 6). From the notices in the Gospels we gather that Capernaum was a city of considerable importance. Some think that the words "shalt thou be exalted," etc. (Matthew 11:23 Luke 10:15), mean that it stood on an elevated site. Perhaps more naturally they refer to the excessive pride of the inhabitants in their city. It was a customs station, and the residence of a high officer of the king (Matthew 9:9 John 4:46, etc.). It was occupied by a detachment of Roman soldiers, whose commander thought the good will of the people worth securing at the expense of building for them a synagogue (Matthew 8:5 Luke 7:5). It stood by the sea (Matthew 4:13) and from John 6:17 (compare Matthew 14:34 Mark 6:53), we see that it was either in or near the plain of Gennesaret.
Josephus twice mentions Capernaum. It played no great part in the history of his time, and seems to have declined in importance, as he refers to it as a "village." In battle in el-BaTeichah his horse fell into a quagmire, and he suffered injury which disabled him for further fighting. His soldiers carried him to the village of Capernaum (this reference is however doubtful; the name as it stands is Kepharnomon which Niese corrects to Kepharnokon), whence he was removed to Tarichea (Vita, 72). Again he eulogizes the plain of Gennesaret for its wonderful fruits, and says it is watered by a most fertile fountain which the people of the country call Capharnaum. In the water of this fountain the Coracinus is found (BJ, III, x, 8). Josephus therefore corroborates the Biblical data, and adds the information as to the fountain and the Coracinus fish. The fish however is found in other fountains near the lake, and is therefore no help toward identification.
The two chief rivals for the honor of representing Capernaum are Tell Chum, a ruined site on the lake shore, nearly 2 1/2 miles West of the mouth of the Jordan; and Khan Minyeh fully 2 1/2 miles farther west, at the Northeast corner of the plain of Gennesaret. Dr. Tristram suggested `Ain El-Madowwerah, a large spring enclosed by a circular wall, on the western edge of the plain. But it stands about a mile from the sea; there are no ruins to indicate that any considerable village ever stood here; and the water is available for only a small part of the plain.
In favor of Tell Chum is Eusebius, Onomasticon, Which places Chorazin 2 miles from Capernaum. If Kerazeh is Chorazin, this suits Tell Chum better than Khan Minyeh. To this may be added the testimony of Theodosius (circa 530), Antoninus Martyr (600), and John of Wurtzburg (1100). Jewish tradition speaks of Tankhum, in which are the graves of Nahum and Rabbi Tankhum. Identifying Kerr Nahum with Tankhum, and then deriving Tell Chum from Tankhum, some have sought to vindicate the claims of this site. But every link in that chain of argument is extremely precarious. A highway ran through Tell Chum along which passed the caravans to and from the East; but the place was not in touch with the great north-and-south traffic.
There is also no fountain near Tell Chum answering the description of Josephus. Of recent advocates of Tell Chum, it is sufficient to name Schurer (HJP, IV, 71) and Buhl (GAP, 224). In this connection it may be interesting to note that the present writer, when visiting the place recently (1911), drew his boatman's attention to a bit of ruined wall rising above the greenery West of the lagoon, and asked what it was called. Kaniset el Kufry, was the reply, which may be freely rendered, "church of the infidels." This is just the Arabic equivalent of the Jewish "church of the minim."
For Khan Minyeh it may be noted that Gennesaret corresponds to el-Ghuweir, the plain lying on the Northwest shore, and that Khan Minyeh stands at the Northeast extremity of the plain; thus answering, as Tell Chum cannot do, the description of the Gospels. The copious fountains at eT-Tabigha, half a mile to the East, supplied water which was conducted round the face of the rock toward Khan Minyeh at a height which made it possible to water a large portion of the plain. If it be said that Josephus must have been carried to Tell Chum as being nearer the scene of his accident-see however, the comment above-it does not at all follow that he was taken to the nearest place. Arculf (1670) described Capernaum as on a "narrow piece of ground between the mountain and the lake." This does not apply to Tell Chum; but it accurately fits Khan Minyeh. Isaac Chelo (1334) says that Capernaum, then in ruins, had been inhabited by Minim, that is, Jewish converts to Christianity. The name Minyeh may have been derived from them. Quaresimus (1620-26) notes a Khan called Menieh which stood by the site of Capernaum. Between the ruined Khan and the sea there are traces of ancient buildings. Here the road from the East united with that which came down from the North by way of Khan Jubb Yusif, so that this must have been an important center, alike from the military point of view, and for customs. This is the site favored by, among others, G. A. Smith (HGHL, 456; EB, under the word) and Conder. Sanday argued in favor of Khan Minyeh in his book, The Sacred Sites of the Gospel, but later, owing to what the present writer thinks a mistaken view of the relation between Tell Chum and the fountain at eT-Tabigha, changed his mind (Expository Times, XV, 100). There is no instance of a fountain 2 miles distant being called by the name of a town. Tell Chum, standing on the sea shore, was independent of this fountain, whose strength also was spent in a westward direction, away from Tell Chum.
The balance of evidence was therefore heavily in favor of Khan Minyeh until Professor R. A. S. Macalister published the results of his researches. He seems to be wrong in rejecting the name Tell Chum in favor of Talchum; and he falls into a curious error regarding the use of the word tell. No one who speaks Arabic, he says, "would ever think of applying the word Tell, `mound,' to this flat widespread ruin." In Egyptian Arabic, however, tell means "ruin"; and Asad Mansur, a man of education whose native language is Arabic, writes: "I do not understand what the objectors mean by the word `tell.' In Arabic `tell' is used for any heap of ruins, or mound. So that the ruins of Tell Chum themselves are today a `tell' " (Expos, April, 1907, 370). Professor Macalister is on surer ground in discussing the pottery found on the rival sites. At Khan Minyeh he found nothing older than the Arabian period, while at Tell Chum pottery of the Roman period abounds-"exactly the period of the glory of Capernaum" (PEFS, April and July, 1907). If this be confirmed by further examination, it disposes of the claim of Khan Minyeh. Important Roman remains have now been found between the ruined Khan and the sea. It is no longer open to doubt that this was the site of a great Roman city. The Roman period however covers a long space. The buildings at Tell Chum are by many assigned to the days of the Antonines. Is it possible from the remains of pottery to make certain that the city flourished in the time of the Herods? If the city at Tell Chum had not yet arisen in the days of Christ, those who dispute its claim to be Capernaum are under no obligation to show which city the ruins represent. They are not the only extensive ruins in the country of whose history we are in ignorance.
Nahum's town, a Galilean city frequently mentioned in the history of our Lord. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament. After our Lord's expulsion from Nazareth (Matthew 4:13-16; Luke 4:16-31), Capernaum became his "own city." It was the scene of many Acts and incidents of his life (Matthew 8:5, 14, 15; 9:2-6, 10-17; 15:1-20; Mark 1:32-34, etc.). The impenitence and unbelief of its inhabitants after the many evidences our Lord gave among them of the truth of his mission, brought down upon them a heavy denunciation of judgement (Matthew 11:23).
It stood on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. The "land of Gennesaret," near, if not in, which it was situated, was one of the most prosperous and crowded districts of Palestine. This city lay on the great highway from Damascus to Acco and Tyre. It has been identified with Tell Hum, about two miles south-west of where the Jordan flows into the lake. Here are extensive ruins of walls and foundations, and also the remains of what must have been a beautiful synagogue, which it is conjectured may have been the one built by the centurion (Luke 7:5), in which our Lord frequently taught (John 6:59; Mark 1:21; Luke 4:33). Others have conjectured that the ruins of the city are to be found at Khan Minyeh, some three miles further to the south on the shore of the lake. "If Tell Hum be Capernaum, the remains spoken of are without doubt the ruins of the synagogue built by the Roman centurion, and one of the most sacred places on earth. It was in this building that our Lord gave the well-known discourse in John 6; and it was not without a certain strange feeling that on turning over a large block we found the pot of manna engraved on its face, and remembered the words, `I am that bread of life: your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are dead.'", (The Recovery of Jerusalem.)
Capernaum (16 Occurrences)
Matthew 4:13 Leaving Nazareth, he came and lived in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Matthew 8:5 When he came into Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking him, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Matthew 11:23 You, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, you will go down to Hades. For if the mighty works had been done in Sodom which were done in you, it would have remained until this day. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Matthew 17:24 When they had come to Capernaum, those who collected the didrachma coins came to Peter, and said, "Doesn't your teacher pay the didrachma?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Mark 1:21 They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Mark 2:1 When he entered again into Capernaum after some days, it was heard that he was in the house. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Mark 9:33 He came to Capernaum, and when he was in the house he asked them, "What were you arguing among yourselves on the way?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Luke 4:23 He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable,'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.'" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Luke 4:31 He came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee. He was teaching them on the Sabbath day, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Luke 7:1 After he had finished speaking in the hearing of the people, he entered into Capernaum. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Luke 10:15 You, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
John 2:12 After this, he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, his brothers, and his disciples; and they stayed there a few days. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
John 4:46 Jesus came therefore again to Cana of Galilee, where he made the water into wine. There was a certain nobleman whose son was sick at Capernaum. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
John 6:17 and they entered into the boat, and were going over the sea to Capernaum. It was now dark, and Jesus had not come to them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
John 6:24 When the multitude therefore saw that Jesus wasn't there, nor his disciples, they themselves got into the boats, and came to Capernaum, seeking Jesus. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
John 6:59 He said these things in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)Capernaum (16 Occurrences)
... After our Lord's expulsion from Nazareth (Matthew 4:13-16; Luke 4:16-31), Capernaum
became his "own city." It was the scene of many Acts and incidents of his ...
biblethesaurus.com/c/capernaum.htm - 23k
Caper'na-um (16 Occurrences)
Caper'na-um. << Capernaum, Caper'na-um. Capes >>. ... Matthew 8:5 And Jesus having entered
into Capernaum, there came to him a centurion calling upon him, (See RSV). ...
biblethesaurus.com/c/caper'na-um.htm - 10k
Bethsaida (7 Occurrences)
... The house of Andrew and Peter seems to have been not far from the synagogue
in Capernaum (Matthew 8:14 Mark 1:29, etc.). Unless ...
biblethesaurus.com/b/bethsaida.htm - 19k
Jairus (6 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary A ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only
daughter Jesus restored to life (Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41). ...
biblethesaurus.com/j/jairus.htm - 10k
Chorazin (2 Occurrences)
... Named along with Bethsaida and Capernaum as one of the cities in which our Lord's
"mighty works" were done, and which was doomed to woe because of signal ...
biblethesaurus.com/c/chorazin.htm - 8k
Cana (4 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary Reedy, a town of Galilee, near Capernaum. ... There
was a certain nobleman whose son was sick at Capernaum. ...
biblethesaurus.com/c/cana.htm - 11k
Taught (134 Occurrences)
... (KJV ASV DBY YLT). Mark 1:21 They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath
day he entered into the synagogue and taught. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS RSV). ...
biblethesaurus.com/t/taught.htm - 36k
Nazareth (29 Occurrences)
... 58); and he finally retired from the city, where he did not many mighty works because
of their unbelief (Matthew 13:58), and took up his residence in Capernaum...
biblethesaurus.com/n/nazareth.htm - 24k
Entered (291 Occurrences)
... (WEY). Matthew 8:5 And when Jesus was entered into Capernaum, there came unto him
a centurion, beseeching him, (KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV). ...
biblethesaurus.com/e/entered.htm - 35k
... Pauline Data III. PREPARATION FOR THE EUCHARIST 1. Miracles of Loaves and
Fishes 2. Discourse at Capernaum IV. HISTORICAL SETTING ...
biblethesaurus.com/e/eucharist.htm - 38k
2584. Kapernaoum -- Capernaum.
... << 2583, 2584. Kapernaoum. 2585 >>. Capernaum. Part of Speech ... town of Galilee.
Word Origin variant reading for Kapharnaoum, qv. Capernaum. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2584.htm - 6k
2746b. Kapharnaoum -- Capernaum, a city of Galilee
... << 2746a, 2746b. Kapharnaoum. 2747 >>. Capernaum, a city of Galilee.
Transliteration: Kapharnaoum Short Definition: Capernaum. Word Origin ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2746b.htm - 5k
Significance of Capernaum.
... Tenth Book. 10. Significance of Capernaum. ... If we compare all these points together,
we shall not go astray in the meaning we ascribe to Capernaum. ...
/.../origens commentary on the gospel of john/10 significance of capernaum.htm
... Chapters 71-80 Chapter 80 Capernaum. From the things last spoken, we gather no trifling
conjecture concerning the situation of the town of Capernaum. ...
/.../lightfoot/from the talmud and hebraica/chapter 80 capernaum.htm
Sodom, Capernaum, Manchester
... SODOM, CAPERNAUM, MANCHESTER. 'Then began He ... Jesus Christ. But now,
mark;"as Capernaum is to Sodom, so is Manchester to Capernaum! I ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture b/sodom capernaum manchester.htm
... The DESIRE of AGES Chapter 26 At Capernaum. At Capernaum ... life. Capernaum itself
was well adapted to be the center of the Saviour's work. Being ...
//christianbookshelf.org/white/the desire of ages/chapter 26 at capernaum.htm
Jesus Comes to Capernaum. Statements of the Four Evangelists
... Tenth Book. 1. Jesus Comes to Capernaum. ... Matthew and Luke represent that he was first
at Nazara,  and then left them and came and dwelt in Capernaum. ...
/.../origen/origens commentary on the gospel of john/1 jesus comes to capernaum.htm
Jesus at Capernaum.
... JESUS AT CAPERNAUM. ... His centre of action, at this epoch of his life, was the little
town of Capernaum, situated on the shore of the lake of Gennesareth. ...
/.../renan/the life of jesus/chapter viii jesus at capernaum.htm
A Sabbath in Capernaum
... CHAPTER XIV. A SABBATH IN CAPERNAUM. (Matthew 8 14-17; Mark 1:21-34; Luke
4:33-41.) ... It is morning, and Jesus goes to the Synagogue at Capernaum. ...
/.../edersheim/the life and times of jesus the messiah/chapter xiv a sabbath in.htm
The Return to Capernaum - Healing of the Centurion's Servant.
... CHAPTER XIX. THE RETURN TO CAPERNAUM - HEALING OF THE CENTURION'S SERVANT. (Matthew
8:1, 5-15; Mark 3:20, 21; Luke 7:1-10.) We are once again in Capernaum. ...
/.../edersheim/the life and times of jesus the messiah/chapter xix the return to.htm
The Return to Capernaum - Concerning the Forgiveness of Sins - the ...
... CHAPTER XVI. THE RETURN TO CAPERNAUM - CONCERNING THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS - THE
HEALING OF THE PARALYSED. (Matthew 9:1-8; Mark 2:1-12; Luke 5:17-26.) ...
/.../edersheim/the life and times of jesus the messiah/chapter xvi the return to.htm
Christ in the Synagogue at Capernaum. (John, vi. )
... SECOND COURSE OF EXTENDED LABOURS IN GALILEE. Section 178. Christ in the Synagogue
at Capernaum. (John, vi.). (1.) The Carnal Mind of the Multitude rebuked. ...
/.../section 178 christ in the.htm
Capernaum: His Prophecy Against
Capernaum: Jesus Chose, As the Place of his Abode
Capernaum: Miracles of Jesus Performed At
Caper'na-um (16 Occurrences)
Bethsaida (7 Occurrences)
Jairus (6 Occurrences)
Chorazin (2 Occurrences)
Cana (4 Occurrences)
Taught (134 Occurrences)
Nazareth (29 Occurrences)
Entered (291 Occurrences)
Supper (17 Occurrences)
Hades (11 Occurrences)
Nobleman (5 Occurrences)
Lifted (466 Occurrences)
Wast (84 Occurrences)
Exalted (126 Occurrences)
Depths (56 Occurrences)
Descended (64 Occurrences)
Skies (36 Occurrences)
Sabbaths (53 Occurrences)
Simon (75 Occurrences)
Raised (267 Occurrences)
Matthew (5 Occurrences)
Sermon (1 Occurrence)
Sayings (134 Occurrences)
Hell (53 Occurrences)
Lake (45 Occurrences)
Naphtali (51 Occurrences)
Town (861 Occurrences)
Synagogue (52 Occurrences)
Sick (117 Occurrences)
James (40 Occurrences)
Tax (43 Occurrences)
Lord's (548 Occurrences)
Teaching (372 Occurrences)
Galilee (73 Occurrences)
Yes (511 Occurrences)
Quote (4 Occurrences)
Questioning (65 Occurrences)
Village (21 Occurrences)
Zebedee (11 Occurrences)
Zabulon (2 Occurrences)
Zeb'ulun (41 Occurrences)
Nain (1 Occurrence)
Native (35 Occurrences)
Naph'tali (47 Occurrences)
Naphtalim (1 Occurrence)
Noised (5 Occurrences)
Nephthalim (2 Occurrences)
Nepthalim (2 Occurrences)
Nahum (3 Occurrences)
Understood (63 Occurrences)
Official (45 Occurrences)
Officer (70 Occurrences)
Occurred (23 Occurrences)
Joined (146 Occurrences)
Leaving (80 Occurrences)
Living-place (83 Occurrences)
Wasn't (35 Occurrences)
Imploring (8 Occurrences)
Iscariot (11 Occurrences)
Frontiers (3 Occurrences)
Finished (157 Occurrences)
Frequently (28 Occurrences)
Thrust (92 Occurrences)
Tribute-money (2 Occurrences)
Thyself (352 Occurrences)
Two-drachma (1 Occurrence)
Realized (33 Occurrences)
Receiving (72 Occurrences)
Road (155 Occurrences)
Region (96 Occurrences)
Royal (154 Occurrences)
Request (248 Occurrences)
Reasoning (37 Occurrences)
Reported (104 Occurrences)
Received (312 Occurrences)
Returned (328 Occurrences)