The principle, of appeal was recognized by the Mosaic law in the establishment of a central court under the presidency of the judge or ruler for the time being, before which all cased too difficult for the local court were to be tried. (17:8,9) According to the above regulation, the appeal lay in the time of the Judges to the judge, (Judges 4:5) and under the monarchy to the king. Jehoshaphat delegated his judicial authority to a court permanently established for the purpose. (2 Chronicles 19:8) These courts were re-established by Ezra. (Ezra 7:25) After the institution of the Sanhedrin the final appeal lay to them. St. Paul, as a Roman citizen, exercized a right of appeal from the jurisdiction of the local court at Jerusalem to the emperor. (Acts 25:11)APPEAL
In the institution of judges by Moses (Exodus 18:26), the reference: "The hard cases they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves," indicates simply a distribution of cases between two courts, but gives no trace of any provision for the rehearing of any case, by a higher court, that has already been decided by a lower. In Deuteronomy 17:8-13, directions are given that a lower court, under certain conditions, shall ask a higher for instructions as to procedure, and shall strictly follow the order prescribed: nevertheless, the decision itself belongs to the lower court. When its sentence was once given, there was no appeal.
In the New Testament, the provision of the Roman law, for an appeal from a lower to a higher court, is clearly recognized, although the case of Paul in Acts 25 does not strictly fall within its scope. The Roman law originally gave a citizen the right of appeal to the tribune of the people, but, with the establishment of the Empire, the emperor himself assumed this function of the tribune, and became the court of last resort. The case of Paul, however, had not been tried before Festus, nor any verdict rendered, when (Acts 25:10, 11) he utters the proper legal formula: "I appeal unto Caesar" (Kaisara epikaloumai). That Roman citizens could insist upon such procedure, as right, is not perfectly certain (HJP, II, 2 279). Paul evidently acted upon the suggestion of the governor himself (Acts 25:9), who seems to have been desirous of avoiding the responsibility of a case involving questions most remote from his ordinary attention. At first sight, Paul's decision to appeal seems premature. He throws away his chance of acquittal by Festus, and acts upon the assumption that he has been already condemned. Acts 26:32 shows that the possibility of his acquittal had amounted almost to a certainty. His course is explicable only by regarding his appeal the master stroke of a great leader, who was ready to take risks. In the proposition of Festus, he grasps at what had been an object of hope long deferred.
For many years, he had been desiring and praying to get to Rome (Acts 19:21 Romans 1:11, 15; Romans 15:23, 24). The Lord had just assured him (Acts 23:11), that as he had testified at Jerusalem, "so must thou bear witness also at Rome." With this promise and direction in view, he hastens toward the world's capital and the center of the world's influence, in the seemingly precipitate words, "I appeal," which a lower order of prudence would have deferred until he had first been condemned.
H. E. Jacobs
A reference of any case from an inferior to a superior court. Moses established in the wilderness a series of judicatories such that appeals could be made from a lower to a higher (Exodus 18:13-26.)
Under the Roman law the most remarkable case of appeal is that of Paul from the tribunal of Festus at Caesarea to that of the emperor at Rome (Acts 25:11, 12, 21, 25). Paul availed himself of the privilege of a Roman citizen in this matter.
1. (v. t.) To make application for the removal of (a cause) from an inferior to a superior judge or court for a rehearing or review on account of alleged injustice or illegality in the trial below. We say, the cause was appealed from an inferior court.
2. (v. t.) To charge with a crime; to accuse; to institute a private criminal prosecution against for some heinous crime; as, to appeal a person of felony.
3. (v. t.) To summon; to challenge.
4. (v. t.) To invoke.
5. (v. t.) To apply for the removal of a cause from an inferior to a superior judge or court for the purpose of reexamination of for decision.
6. (v. t.) To call upon another to decide a question controverted, to corroborate a statement, to vindicate one's rights, etc.; as, I appeal to all mankind for the truth of what is alleged. Hence: To call on one for aid; to make earnest request.
7. (n.) An application for the removal of a cause or suit from an inferior to a superior judge or court for reexamination or review.
8. (n.) The mode of proceeding by which such removal is effected.
9. (n.) The right of appeal.
10. (n.) An accusation; a process which formerly might be instituted by one private person against another for some heinous crime demanding punishment for the particular injury suffered, rather than for the offense against the public.
11. (n.) An accusation of a felon at common law by one of his accomplices, which accomplice was then called an approver. See Approvement.
12. (n.) A summons to answer to a charge.
13. (n.) A call upon a person or an authority for proof or decision, in one's favor; reference to another as witness; a call for help or a favor; entreaty.
14. (v. t.) Resort to physical means; recourse.Appeal (30 Occurrences)
Matthew 9:13 But go and learn what this means, 'It is mercy that I desire, not sacrifice'; for I did not come to appeal to the righteous, but to sinners." (WEY)
Matthew 18:17 If he refuses to hear them, appeal to the Church; and if he refuses to hear even the Church, regard him just as you regard a Gentile or a tax-gatherer. (WEY)
Matthew 26:53 Or do you think that I couldn't ask my Father, and he would even now send me more than twelve legions of angels? (See NAS RSV)
Mark 2:17 Jesus heard the words, and He said, "It is not the healthy who require a doctor, but the sick: I did not come to appeal to the righteous, but to sinners." (WEY)
Acts 25:11 For if I have done wrong, and have committed anything worthy of death, I don't refuse to die; but if none of those things is true that they accuse me of, no one can give me up to them. I appeal to Caesar!" (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 25:21 But when Paul had appealed to be kept for the decision of the emperor, I commanded him to be kept until I could send him to Caesar." (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 25:25 But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and as he himself appealed to the emperor I determined to send him. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 28:19 But when the Jews spoke against it, I was constrained to appeal to Caesar, not that I had anything about which to accuse my nation. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 12:1 Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. (See RSV)
Romans 15:30 Now I beg you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me, (See RSV)
Romans 16:17 Now I beg you, brothers, look out for those who are causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling, contrary to the doctrine which you learned, and turn away from them. (See RSV)
1 Corinthians 1:10 Now I beg you, brothers, through the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, that you all speak the same thing and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be perfected together in the same mind and in the same judgment. (See RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 1:23 But as for me, as my soul shall answer for it, I appeal to God as my witness, that it was to spare you pain that I gave up my visit to Corinth. (WEY)
2 Corinthians 5:20 We are therefore ambassadors on behalf of Christ, as though God were entreating by us: we beg you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God. (See NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 8:17 For he indeed accepted our exhortation, but being himself very earnest, he went out to you of his own accord. (See NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 10:1 Now I Paul, myself, entreat you by the humility and gentleness of Christ; I who in your presence am lowly among you, but being absent am of good courage toward you. (See NIV)
2 Corinthians 13:11 Finally, brothers, rejoice. Be perfected, be comforted, be of the same mind, live in peace, and the God of love and peace will be with you. (See RSV NIV)
Philippians 2:1 If then I can appeal to you as the followers of Christ, if there is any persuasive power in love and any common sharing of the Spirit, or if you have any tender-heartedness and compassion, make my joy complete by being of one mind, (WEY)
1 Thessalonians 2:3 For our exhortation is not of error, nor of uncleanness, nor in deception. (See RSV NIV)
1 Timothy 5:1 Don't rebuke an older man, but exhort him as a father; the younger men as brothers; (See NAS)
Philemon 1:9 yet for love's sake I rather beg, being such a one as Paul, the aged, but also a prisoner of Jesus Christ. (See NAS RSV NIV)
Philemon 1:10 I beg you for my child, whom I have become the father of in my chains, Onesimus, (See NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 13:22 But I exhort you, brothers, endure the word of exhortation, for I have written to you in few words. (See RSV)
1 Peter 3:21 This is a symbol of baptism, which now saves you-not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, (See NAS RSV)
1 Peter 5:1 I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and who will also share in the glory that will be revealed. (See NIV)
Deuteronomy 15:9 Beware that there not be a base thought in your heart, saying, "The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand;" and your eye be evil against your poor brother, and you give him nothing; and he cry to Yahweh against you, and it be sin to you. (See NIV)
2 Kings 8:3 It happened at the seven years' end, that the woman returned out of the land of the Philistines. Then she went forth to cry to the king for her house and for her land. (See NAS RSV)
Job 5:8 "But as for me, I would seek God. I would commit my cause to God, (See NIV)
Job 9:15 Though I were righteous, yet I wouldn't answer him. I would make supplication to my judge. (See RSV)
Psalms 77:10 Then I thought, "I will appeal to this: the years of the right hand of the Most High." (WEB NIV)Appeal (30 Occurrences)
... Under the Roman law the most remarkable case of appeal is that of Paul from the
tribunal of Festus at Caesarea to that of the emperor at Rome (Acts 25:11, 12 ...
biblethesaurus.com/a/appeal.htm - 20k
Oath (286 Occurrences)
... A solemn appeal to God, permitted on fitting occasions (Deuteronomy 6:13; Jeremiah
4:2), in various forms (Genesis 16:5; 2 Samuel 12:5; Ruth 1:17; Hosea 4:15 ...
biblethesaurus.com/o/oath.htm - 47k
Adjuration (2 Occurrences)
... A solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the obligation of speaking
or acting as if under an oath (1 Samuel 14:24; Joshua 6:26; 1 Kings 22:16). ...
biblethesaurus.com/a/adjuration.htm - 10k
Swear (99 Occurrences)
... 1. (vi) To affirm or utter a solemn declaration, with an appeal to God for the truth
of what is affirmed; to make a promise, threat, or resolve on oath; also ...
biblethesaurus.com/s/swear.htm - 39k
Citizenship (4 Occurrences)
... All Roman citizens had the right of appeal to Caesar (25:11). Noah Webster's Dictionary.
(n.) The state of being a citizen; the status of a citizen. Int. ...
biblethesaurus.com/c/citizenship.htm - 16k
... 9. (vt) To invoke; to appeal to. 10. ... 17. (n.) A requirement or appeal arising from
the circumstances of the case; a moral requirement or appeal. 18. ...
biblethesaurus.com/c/call.htm - 11k
Authority (326 Occurrences)
... OUTLINE HISTORY OF ECCLESIASTICAL DOCTRINE OF AUTHORITY 1. Appeal to Reason as Logos
2. Orthodox Dogma 3. Scholasticism 4. Ecclesiastical Absolutism 5 ...
biblethesaurus.com/a/authority.htm - 69k
Caesar (25 Occurrences)
... distinctive proper names (John 19:15; Acts 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to Caesar
(Matthew 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of appeal to him (Acts ...
biblethesaurus.com/c/caesar.htm - 16k
Praetorian (2 Occurrences)
... WM Ramsay, who hold that in this passage "praetorium" means a council, not of war,
however, but the council of judgment, the emperor's court of appeal in which ...
biblethesaurus.com/p/praetorian.htm - 15k
Jehoshaphat (79 Occurrences)
... In addition to these local courts, two courts of appeal, an ecclesiastical and a
civil court, were established at Jerusalem to be presided over by priests ...
biblethesaurus.com/j/jehoshaphat.htm - 51k
1941. epikaleo -- to call upon
... Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: epikaleo Phonetic Spelling: (ep-ee-kal-eh'-
om-ahee) Short Definition: I call by an additional name, appeal to Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1941.htm - 8k
1906. eperotema -- an inquiry, a demand
... Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: eperotema Phonetic Spelling:
(ep-er-o'-tay-mah) Short Definition: inquiry, request, appeal Definition: inquiry ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1906.htm - 6k
3870. parakaleo -- to call to or for, to exhort, to encourage
... Word Origin from para and kaleo Definition to call to or for, to exhort, to encourage
NASB Word Usage appeal (4), appealed (1), appealing (2), beg (1), begging ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3870.htm - 10k
809. aschemon -- shapeless, ie fig. unseemly
... 809 (an adverb, derived from 1 "without" and 4976 , "external shape") -- properly,
lacking proper appeal (), ie (unattractive); lacking respect because (not ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/809.htm - 7k
3874. paraklesis -- a calling to one's aid, ie encouragement ... 6817. tsaaq -- to cry, cry out, call
... Word Origin from parakaleo Definition a calling to one's aid, ie encouragement,
comfort NASB Word Usage appeal (1), comfort (13), consolation (1 ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3874.htm - 8k
... root Definition to cry, cry out, call NASB Word Usage appeal (1), appealed (1),
called the together (1), cried (27), cries (1), cry (14), cry aloud (1), crying ...
//strongsnumbers.com/hebrew2/6817.htm - 6k
An Appeal to Sinners
... An Appeal To Sinners. A Sermon (No.219). Delivered on Sabbath Evening, September
14th, 1856, by the. REV. CH SPURGEON. at Exeter Hall, Strand. DEARLY BELOVED,. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 4 1858/an appeal to sinners.htm
... THE SOUL. XV. APPEAL. Fy enaid llwythog, euog i 8,6,8,6,8,8,6,6. Unhappy soul, what
sayest thou. To one with power and love. All thy transgressions to forgive,. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/morris/favourite welsh hymns/xv appeal.htm
An Appeal and a Response
... XX An Appeal and a Response. 'I heard ... First. An Appeal sounds out: 'Whom
shall I send, and who will go for Us?'. Second. A Response ...
/.../howard/standards of life and service/xx an appeal and a.htm
... CHAPTER III. On Appeal. It is set before us in this last chapter of our lecture
to say something in reference to appeal as an essential quality of the sermon. ...
/.../jackson/the message and the man/chapter iii on appeal.htm
It is the Final Court of Appeal.
... Chapter Fourteen Application of the Argument II. It Is the Final Court of
Appeal. It is not a question of what I think, or of what ...
/.../pink/the divine inspiration of the bible/ii it is the final.htm
An Appeal to the Church and to his Hearers to Pardon and Correct ...
... The Oration of the emperor constantine, which he addressed "to the assembly of the
saints." Chapter II."An Appeal to the Church and to his Hearers to pardon ...
/.../pamphilius/the life of constantine/chapter ii an appeal to the.htm
An Appeal to the History of Creation True Meaning of the Term ...
... Chapter XIX."An Appeal to the History of Creation True Meaning of the Term Beginning,
Which the Heretic Curiously Wrests to an Absurd Sense. ...
/.../tertullian/against hermogenes/chapter xix an appeal to the.htm
Appeal to the Bishops of the Whole Church to Unite against Gregory ...
... Section 7. Appeal to the bishops of the whole Church to unite against
Gregory. You are acquainted with the history of the Arian ...
/.../athanasius/select works and letters or athanasius/section 7 appeal to the.htm
Appeal to the Greeks.
... Chapter XXXV."Appeal to the Greeks. The time, then, ye men of Greece, is
now come, that ye, having been persuaded by the secular ...
/.../justins hortatory address to the greeks/chapter xxxv appeal to the greeks.htm
An Appeal to Children of Godly Parents
... An Appeal to Children of Godly Parents. A sermon (No.2406) intended for
reading on Lord's Day, March 31st, 1895, delivered by CH ...
/.../spurgeon/sermons on proverbs/an appeal to children of.htm